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Viewing blog entries in category: Misc. Calcs

  • Endless Mike
    Unfortunately I'm going to have to cancel my Stargate calc series as I have lost access to high quality versions of the episodes. So if anyone else wants to calc the stuff from season 5 and onwards, be my guest (I have a guideline of various things to look at in the season along with timestamps from the episodes if anyone is interested).
  • Endless Mike
    Small Victories, Part 2

    The new Asgard O'Neill class warship self-destructed while in hyperspace, and its explosion/debris took out 3 other, more primitive Asgard ships which were controlled by the Replicators (although their shields were down at the time). No real way to quantify any of that, though, although it is notable that we can see the effects of the explosion in realspace even though it took place in hyperspace, and it created a shockwave that impacted the Biliskner's shields.

    Thor's flagship also travels from the Agard home galaxy to Earth again in a short period of time. This one is easy. We last see the ship in orbit of the Asgard world at 39:30 into the episode. The events are clearly playing out in real time, with the switch back and forth between the events in the Asgard galaxy and Jack and Teal'c's mission on the submarine, and they are beamed out at 40:48, indicating the ship reached orbit by that point. That gives us a maximum timeframe of 78 seconds.

    Using the distance range we calculated last time, our low-end (using the distance of 4,027,000 light-years) is 1,628,147,077c, and using the high-end distance of 4,571,000 light-years, the value is 1,848,090,462c. Better than before, and consistent due to having a more accurate timeframe.

    The Other Side

    I could maybe try to calc the speed of the atmospheric fighters and bombers used by the two factions in this episode, but that would require a lot of ridiculously complex scaling from the maps and globes of their world that are briefly visible, and it wouldn't scale to anyone or anything of importance anyway, so forget it.

    Teal'c also crushes a metal gun in his hands in this episode, but I have no real way to calc that.

    Upgrades

    This is actually one of the episodes I had in mind when I first started this project.

    At 21:14 into the episode, SG-1, while using the Atanik armbands, run past several SGC personnel too fast to be seen. As these are normal, unenhanced humans we're talking about, we can use human reaction time.

    We'll start with scaling the scene:



    SG-1 ran in a Z - shaped path, first from right to left in front of the desk, then down the hall, then turning left and taking the path down the intersection. The three people visible in this scene had only the briefest idea something had passed by them, due to the wind that was stirred up - they didn't see them at all. The wiki actually has an article on one of the unnamed guards here, and it names the actor who plays him (Daniel B. Melles). By a stroke of luck, I actually found a website that listed his height: 5' 10" (1.778 m). Using the standard head to body ratio of 7.5, that makes his head 0.2370666667 m tall. The screencap is 893px wide, and that would serve as a good minimum distance for the first part of the trip, which equals 2.655818225 m.

    Unfortunately I can't find any info on the woman in the background (neither the character nor the actress) so I'll just use the height of an average Caucasian American woman: 5' 5" (1.651 m). Measuring the final leg of the trip from her height, we get 1.960010695 m.

    The easiest way to estimate the middle section of the trip is to angsize the distance from the camera to the woman, as that roughly corresponds to the distance of the corridor.

    Screencap width: 893px
    Screencap height: 665px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(893/665) = 86.47401292908

    2*atan(187/(893/tan(86.47401292908/2))) = 22.27814258394 degrees

    Plugging that and her height into the angsize calculator, we get a distance of 4.1925 m. Add that to the two other values for a total distance of 8.80832892 m. Using 1/120 of a second for a timeframe, their speed is 1056.99947 m/s, or Mach 3.106172589.

    It's also worth mentioning that even when the armband enhancement was wearing off, they were able to dodge staff blasts from close range.

    At the end of the episode, the team successfully sabotages the power core of Apophis' prototype battleship which is still under construction, causing it to overload and explode. We can try to calc the power of this explosion.

    Now there's no info on the size of the battleship, but the wiki refers to it as a Ha'tak variant, and it was stated to be more advanced and powerful than the older models. The Goa'uld are also not really much for miniaturization, since every other super-Ha'tak or more powerful warship we've seen from them has been significantly larger than the basic versions. So I think at the minimum it would be justified to say that the pyramid structure in the core of this ship is at least the same size as the pyramid at the center of a standard Ha'tak.

    Luckily, we scaled that previously. The base edge of a Ha'tak's central pyramid is 174.5091164 m.



    Screencap width: 888px
    Screencap height: 666px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(888/666) = 86.067076523132

    2*atan(342.0131576/(888/tan(86.067076523132/2))) = 39.555126830394 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 242.66 m. Add to that the distance from the side to the center of the triangle (which can be found with the formula r = , where a is the length of one of the sides) which gives us 50.37644266 m, for a total distance of 293.0364427 m. The damage from the blast extended at least to the site of the Stargate (although it wasn't enough to destroy it, as those suckers are tough), so using air blast radius/near-total fatalities on the nuke calculator makes sense, which gives us a yield of ~1.15 kilotons.

    Wow, that was a waste of a calc.

    Crossroads

    Nothing to see here

    Divide and Conquer

    Nada

    Window of Opportunity

    One of the funniest episodes of the series, but light on quantifiable feats. At one point Jack and Daniel dodge a rock that rebounded fairly quickly off of a forcefield, but it doesn't seem worth it to calc it (besides, I'd have to do it frame by frame and for that I would need to find a clip of the scene on Youtube)

    Watergate

    Nothing to calc here

    The First Ones

    Nothing here either

    Scorched Earth

    We've got a bit to cover here. We have the first deployment of the SGC's naquadah reactors (the one in this episode is stated to be able to power a city for a year).

    We also have the Gadmeer terraforming beam. From 2:55 to 3:07 in the episode we can see its effects as it passes over a forest - the trees and soil completely disappear to be replaced with glowing, superheated gas. So vaporization seems right.

    The episode actually does some of the scaling work for us. From the transcript:

    The ship had already covered hundreds of miles of terrain with this, and its intention was to sweep the entire planet clean:

    As is typical of the franchise, it's an Earthlike planet (similar environment, ecosystem, gravity, atmosphere, etc.) so using the surface area of Earth (510,072,000 km^2) makes sense. Now we just have to find the height of the beam.

    EDIT: Redoing this part. I'll start by scaling from this screencap:



    2 miles = 3218.69 m.

    Screencap width: 888px
    Screencap height: 666px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(888/666) = 86.067076523132

    2*atan(135.0740538/(888/tan(86.067076523132/2))) = 16.16526372583 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 11,332 m.

    20 miles = 32,186.9 m.

    Angsizing again:

    2*atan(304.2663307/(888/tan(86.067076523132/2))) = 35.478351710324 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 50,309 m. Meaning the height of the beam is 38,977 m. Seems like a lot, but it's the only way to make the statements and the visuals consistent with each other.

    Add that to the Earth's diameter twice to get 12819.954 km. Divide that by 2 for a radius of 6409.977 km.

    (4/3) * pi * 6409.977^3 = 1.103209576e12 km^3

    Now we find and subtract the volume of the Earth from that.

    (4/3) * pi * 6371^3 = 1.083206917e12 km^3

    The difference is 2.0002659e10 km^3. The beam was intense enough to vaporize wood even at the farthest from its emission points. Wood vaporization is 1669 j/cc, so that means our total energy is 3.338443787e28j, or 7.979072149 exatons. This would be over a very long period of time, however, as the ship would likely take months or years to fully cover the planet. Let's try to get a more immediate value.

    Here's a comparison of 2 screencaps taken approximately 4 seconds apart. I measured the distance from the same static feature of the landscape to the front of the energy curtain in each, and, as we know, the energy curtain is roughly 20 miles (32.1869 km) wide:



    In those 4 seconds, the beam advanced 1.223565388 km, giving it a speed of 305.891347 m/s. So in one second, the beam can vaporize a volume of 305.891347 * 38,977 * 32,186.9 = 3.837556227e11 m^3, for a value of 6.404881343e20 Watts, or 153.080338 gigatons/second, which is roughly consistent with power output of large SG-verse ships.

    At one point in the episode, Jack and Carter convert a naquadah generator into a makeshift bomb. Unfortunately it's rather hard to scale the explosion from the shot we're given, and I also don't know whether to count it as a nuclear-type explosion or not (which is important because that determines whether I can use fireball radius on the nuke calculator). However the wiki says that such an explosion was stated in later episodes to yield around 20 kilotons, so I'll just wait for those episodes.

    Beneath the Surface

    Nothing calc-relevant here

    Point of No Return

    We see the ruins of a planet that was attacked by the Goa'uld, but there's no real way to derive weapon yields or anything.

    Martin's escape pod self-destructs towards the end of the episode, leaving a sizable crater. Luckily, the episode itself provides us with the dimensions of the pod:



    The subtitles actually give a truncated version of the dialog. The full line, from the transcript:

    16 feet = 4.8768 m.

    From this we can scale the hatch (the part appearing aboveground) as being 1.255828326 m long.

    Here are two screencaps, one from right before the explosion, and another showing the full crater:



    As the camera PoV doesn't change between these two images, we can scale it directly, making the crater's diameter 17.0500962 m. It's hard to measure the depth so we'll just use D/4, which looks about right. According to the dome calculator, that makes the volume 648.81 m^3. The explosion briefly causes the ground to erupt upwards before it falls back into the crater and creates some large dust clouds, but the debris isn't violently ejected for the most part, so basic fragmentation (8 j/cm^3) seems best. This gives us a yield of 5,190,480,000 joules, or 1.240554493 tons. Decent for the self-destruct of a small escape from from a civilization technologically inferior to the Goa'uld.

    Tangent

    Woo boy. I could tell as soon as I rewatched the episode that this one was going to be painful.

    Basically the major calc here is the speed of a modified Goa'uld Death Glider as it flies through space, but there are so many inconsistencies in the information we're given, so I'll probably have to use a wide range here.

    Let's start with the absolute highest end (which is almost certainly wrong, but we might as well get it over with). From the transcript:

    Apophis' homeworld, as far as we know, is Chulak, which the wiki states is approximately 2000 light-years from Earth. Using the minimum possible interpretation of "several hundred", 200, this would give the Death Glider a speed of 10c.

    This is almost certainly wrong, though, because the Death Glider has no hyperdrive, and was proceeding at sublight speeds. Possible ways to rationalize this include:

    - Teal'c was referring to a planet other than Chulak
    - Teal'c underestimated the time the trip would take
    - Teal'c was taking into account the effects of time dilation as the Glider reached relativistic speeds.

    Let's find some more reasonable figures. If we use the 200 year timeframe again, but instead use the distance to the nearest star, 4.246 light-years, we get a speed of 6,364,593.883 m/s (Mach 18,703.44084).

    Of course we're not done yet. We have this statement shortly after the Glider leaves orbit:

    That equals a speed of 447,040 m/s (Mach 1313.703018).

    We also have this:

    And later Carter has them state when their messages end to compensate for the time lag:

    At this point the signal takes 3 minutes to reach the Glider, giving it a distance of 5.396264244e10 m from Earth.

    Later in the episode:

    The time lag is now 4 minutes, meaning they've traveled an additional 1.798754748e10 m in 1 hour and 49 minutes, for a speed of 2,750,389.523 m/s (Mach 8082.487064).

    Later still:

    The time lag has now increased to 5 minutes, meaning they have traveled an additional 3.597509496e10 m from our first time lag measurement. This is 5 hours and 19 minutes later, which gives a speed of 1,879,576.539 m/s (Mach 5523.455109).

    If we were to measure it from the second time lag measurement, though, they would have traveled 1.798754748e10 m in 3 hours and 30 minutes, for a speed of 1,427,583.133 m/s (Mach 4195.195666). You can see what I meant now about this being inconsistent as fuck.

    But wait, it gets worse. There is also this line of dialogue, right after they pass Jupiter:

    Average distance from the sun to Jupiter: 778,547,200 km.

    The Oort cloud starts at a minimum of 50,000 AUs (7.479893535e12 km). Subtracting the distance to Jupiter, we get 7.479114988e12 km. Interpreting "a few months" as 3 (~90 days), this gives us a speed of 961,820,343.1 m/s (3.208287325c). This is again, almost certainly inaccurate due to the aforementioned reasons.

    We can also try visual scaling as the Glider approaches Jupiter.



    Screencap width: 889px
    Screencap height: 666px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(889/666) = 86.131413101744

    2*atan(423/(889/tan(86.131413101744/2))) = 47.951956312542 degrees

    Jupiter's polar diameter: 133,708 km.

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 150,330 km.

    Here's a screencap from 56 seconds later (the scene proceeded in real-time, so there were no time jumps between these screencaps):



    You can just barely see the curvature of Jupiter in the lower-right corner of the second screencap, so we'll proceed with curvature scaling:



    We know from previous uses of this circle that it is 413 px in diameter. The line that I measured as 196 px on the original screencap comes out to 78 px here.

    Jupiter's mean diameter: 139,822 km

    139,822 / 413 = 338.5520581 km, thus the segment is 26,407.06053 km long.

    Screencap width: 888px
    Screencap height: 667px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(888/667) = 85.981318236506

    2*atan(196/(888/tan(85.981318236506/2))) = 23.253612396682 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 64,170 km, meaning they traveled a distance of 86,160 km in 56 seconds, for a speed of 1,538,571.429 m/s or Mach 4521.353635. Consistent with some of the time lag method results, actually.

    No matter the thing's speed, Jacob's Tel'tak was able to easily keep pace with it, so there's that too.

    Said scout ship also had to set its hyperdrive engines to overdrive to reach Earth in time and nearly destroyed itself in the process, but the distance would just be speculation.

    Finally, we have this line from Jacob:

    Rather too vague to calc, but it was an Earth-like planet, so we know what a weapons-grade shipment of naquadah is capable of.

    The Curse

    Osiris reacts to a tranquilizer dart and deflects it after it's fired, but my research shows those don't travel very fast and the calc would probably be too much trouble for a meager result.

    The Serpent's Venom


    We see a Tel'tak cargo ship approaching a planet at sublight speed, but the PoV shifts so much that scaling it would be a pain in the ass, if even possible, and it wouldn't really give us any new info considering the other calcs I've done.

    There's also a line in this episode implying Death Gliders can go FTL (a pilot of one says they will rendezvous on a moon that is probably in another star system, which would give credence to the higher-end speeds for the Tangent calc) but it's unclear.

    Chain Reaction

    Staff weapon blasts blow some holes through the SGC's metal blast doors. Unfortunately I can't find a good way to scale them.

    As for the titular chain reaction of the episode, it refers to the effects of a naquadah-enhanced nuke deployed by the SGC. From the transcript:

    I could calc this but Carter is too unsure of the yield here to make it reliable. Later in the episode, though, this happens:

    And then:

    The Stargate survived for at least 38 minutes in the middle of a planet-engulfing nuclear explosion (we don't know what happened afterwards because the wormhole disconnected).

    2010

    First appearance of the Aschen. Several Arthur C. Clarke references including the episode title. The Aschen were attempting to add more mass to Jupiter to collapse it into a star, but I have no way of calcing this.

    Absolute Power

    Oma Desala and Shifu create a small sandstorm/tornado, but calcing it probably wouldn't amount to much.

    Most of this episode takes place in Daniel's mind, as Shifu gives him an illusion of what would happen if he gained the Goa'uld genetic memory and was able to use it to build technology. As none of this actually happened, the applicability of the feats here is questionable, but what Shifu was trying to do was warn him of what would happen to explain why he couldn't give him the knowledge, so it would make no sense for him to lie about the technology's capabilities. We have this from the transcript:

    And towards the end of the episode, Daniel (corrupted by the Goa'uld memories) turns his new weapons on Moscow Here's a screencap showing the maximum extent we get to see of the blast:



    Measuring from the width of the Moskva River as it passes through Moscow (which I scaled on Google Earth):



    142.12 m. This makes the diameter of the explosion 5949.644206 m.

    As this is not a nuclear weapon but likely some form of plasma beam, we can't use fireball radius on the nuke calculator, so instead using airblast radius (near-total fatalities), I get a yield of 1.25 megatons. Seems small, but it should be noted that:

    - The blast was still expanding when we last saw it, so this isn't a maximum
    - It was stated that the weapons had shield-piercing capabilities
    - This was all a dream/vision, as I noted before

    The Light

    Nothing to calc here.

    Prodigy


    No calcs, but this episode is notable for a cameo from General Michael E. Ryan, who was the Chief of Staff of the USAF (in real life) at the time.

    Entity

    Nothing

    Double Jeopardy


    It's stated in this episode that a standard Ha'tak mothership carries around 1000 Jaffa.

    We see Jaffa armor failing to protect them from close-range crossbow fire (it hits the body glove, not the armor plating, though)

    Robot Carter survives a small explosion but I'm not sure if I can calc it.

    Robot Teal'c was strong enough to nearly strangle Cronus before being stopped (and we know how strong Goa'uld hosts can be)

    Cronus uses his hand device to intercept a zat blast after it was fired, but I can't quantify that without calc stacking.

    Exodus (Part 1)


    This is the famous episode where Carter blows up a sun (with a plan that really shouldn't have worked due to the Stargate being too small to remove enough matter from the sun quickly enough, but hey, suspension of disbelief).

    Before we get to that, though, we'll cover a few other things.

    A mothership can apparently render itself invisible to Goa'uld sensors by hiding on the opposite side of a star.

    Cronus' Ha'tak that they captured last episode can easily move above 5% c. From the transcript:

    That equals 14,989,622.9 m/s (Mach 44,049.5545). Interestingly, this is about the same speed that I calculated Apophis' Ha'taks moving at in the Season 1 finale. Using the mass of the Ha'tak I determined there (4,021,005,017 kg), KE would thus be 4.517373853e23j, or 107.9678263 teratons.

    But how fast was it moving before it decelerated?

    A description of Vorash's sun in the episode:

    In other words, pretty much the same as Sol. Vorash is also an Earth-like planet, as is typical for this series, so it's reasonable to assume the distance between it and its sun is around 1 AU (149,597,870,700 m), the same as the distance from Earth to the sun.

    The Ha'tak leaves Vorash's orbit at 21:15 into the episode. It arrives and begins decelerating at 22:16. Unfortunately this gives an FTL result, so no KE. I'm also unsure if it's even accurate as they weren't using the hyperdrive at this point. Due to time cuts and jumps this kind of measuring is inaccurate for these scenes.

    There is a better way to find the timeframe, though. At one point, Carter says they have a little over an hour before the supernova. Later on, O'Neill says they have 45 minutes left. Within this time period, a Death Glider, an Al'kesh bomber all fly from near the sun to Vorash's orbit. At a maximum timeframe of 15 minutes, that gives them a speed of at least 166,329,856.3 m/s (0.5544497598c).

    There are no canon figures for the mass of a Death Glider or Al'Kesh, though. Luckily, we do have canon info on their dimensions.

    Death Glider

    Al'kesh

    The Death Glider shape is too complex and annoying to try to scale, so I'll just do the Al'kesh for now. Scaling from this 3D model someone made:



    For simplicity's sake, I'll model the bottom part as an elliptical cylinder and the top part as an irregular triangular pyramid.

    Length: 35 m

    Width: 29.48396095 m

    pi * 14.74198047 * 17.5 = 810.482707 m^2.

    Height: 15 m

    Height of bottom section: 7.671232877 m

    810.482707 * 7.671232877 = 6217.401588 m^3

    For the base of the pyramid, I'll model the smaller part as a half ellipse and the larger part as a triangle.

    (35/717) * 473 = 23.08926081 m

    (35/717) * 372 = 18.15899582 m

    Triangle area: 209.6388952 m^2

    Ellipse axis a = (18.15899582/2) = 9.07949791 m

    Ellipse axis b = 3.465829847

    pi * 9.07949791 * 3.465829847 * 0.5 = 49.42981072 m^2

    Total base area: 258.5888065 m^2

    Volume of a triangular pyramid = 1/3 * base area * height

    Pyramid height: 7.397260274 m

    1/3 * 258.5888065 * 7.397260274 = 637.6162352 m^3

    Total volume: 6855.017823 m^3.

    80% hollowness: 1371.003565 m^3

    Using steel density as I did in my first set of Stargate calcs, the mass is 10,830,928.16 kg. RKE is thus 1.96253694e23j, or 46.9057586e13 teratons. That's incredibly impressive for such a small ship.

    At one point, while the Ha'tak is still near the sun, Carter says they have 27 minutes left until the supernova. Shortly after that, the Ha'tak departs for Vorash, and right after it arrives Jacob says there are less than 4 minutes remaining, giving us a maximum timeframe of 23 minutes, which would equal a speed of 108,404,254.1 m/s (0.3615976694c). Running that and the Ha'tak's mass through the RKE calculator on Wolfram Alpha gives us 2.623e25j, or 6.269120459e15 petatons. Not bad at all.

    The shockwave from the supernova sent Jacob's Ha'tak and Apophis' flagship through hyperspace at a vastly increased speed. From the transcript:

    4,000,000 / 125 = 32,000c (actually a bit greater since he said over 4 million ly). This is consistent with the season 1 Ha'tak hyperdrive speed calcs.

    For the boosted speed, the Ha'tak enters hyperspace at 40:55 and leaves at 41:10 with no time cuts in between, for a timeframe of 15 seconds, and a speed of 8.4096e12c.

    As for the supernova itself, we can't use the KE of the star's expansion since it's stated that much of its mass was drained away to make this happen in the first place, but we can use the fact that the planet Vorash was confirmed destroyed in the episode, and we've already established it as having Earth-like parameters.

    Earth GBE = 1.711e32j

    Earth cross-sectional surface area = pi * 6371^2 = 127,516,118 km^2

    Surface area of a 1 AU radius sphere: 2.812293792e17 km^2

    2.812293792e17/127,516,118 = 2,205,441,818

    2,205,441,818 * 1.711e32j = 3.773510951e41j, or 90.189076.27 tenatons. This is a low-end though, as Carter said it would destroy everything in the system (we just don't know what that includes besides Vorash).

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Martin's escape pod self-destruct: ~1.24 tons
    Apophis' incomplete prototype battleship reactor overload: >1.15 kilotons
    AG-3 Satellites destroy Moscow (in Daniel's vision): >1.25 megatons
    Gadmeer terraforming beam: ~153.08 gigatons/second
    Al'kesh efforted sublight KE: 46.91 teratons
    Ha'tak sublight KE in orbit of Vorash sun: ~107.97 teratons
    Ha'tak efforted sublight KE: ~6.27 petatons
    Gadmeer terraforming beam (total energy): ~7.98 exatons
    Artificially induced Vorash supernova: >90.19 tenatons

    Speed:


    SG-1 running speed w/Atanik armbands: ~Mach 3.11
    X-301 Death Glider recall flight speed: ~Mach 1313.7 - 4195.2 - 4521.35 - 5523.46 - 8082.49 - 18,703.44 - 3.21c - 10c (high-ends are very unlikely)
    Ha'tak slows to release Stargate into Vorash sun: ~Mach 44,049.55
    Ha'tak efforted sublight speed: ~36.16% c
    Death Glider and Al'kesh bomber fly from sun to Vorash orbit: ~55.44% c
    Biliskner hyperjumps to Earth to save Jack and Teal'c: 1,628,147,077 - 1,848,090,462c
    Ha'tak uncontrolled hyperjump due to supernova shockwave: 8,409,600,000,000c
  • Endless Mike
    This is going to be a long one so I might have to split it into several parts.

    Into the Fire

    Nothing really notable here

    Seth

    No calcs, but a few things to note. First of all, a Goa'uld symbiote can sense the presence of another one from around 50 feet away. Secondly, when Carter uses the hand device to kill Seth, it smashes him into a small crater in the ground, although calcing it would be difficult and probably yield underwhelming results.

    Fair Game

    No calcs here either, but Carter is promoted to major in this episode.

    Legacy

    Nothing quantifiable here

    Learning Curve

    Introduction of portable naquadah reactor technology. No calcs, though.

    Point of View

    Finally, we get something. In an alternate universe, an Asgard ship travels from the Asgard homeworld to Earth very quickly. This is a lot more concrete than the previous Asgard hyperspace calc I did (which I decided not to add to the calc list, because it was so vague with its assumptions).

    In the alternate universe, they dialed the Asgard homeworld (the same one Jack traveled to in "The Fifth Race") and the Asgard ship showed up on Earth slightly later.

    Going to the transcript:

    The alternate Samantha Carter went through the Stargate to this same address.

    As in my earlier calc, we'll use the stated distance of 4 million light-years (except in this case we know for a fact the ship started from there).

    EDIT: Modifying it to be a bit more accurate, I can't find out which direction any of the proposed candidates for the Ida galaxy are in relation to the Earth's position in the galaxy, so for a low-end we can use Earth's distance from the edge of the galaxy (27,000 light-years) and add that to the 4 million light-years distance between the galaxies. Our high-end will use Sextans B, the farthest proposed candidate for the Ida galaxy, which is 4.44 million light-years away. I can't find any info on its size so I guess we can use 100,000 light-years as an average and add the radius, and if we assume Earth is on the opposite side of the Milky Way from this galaxy, we can add a further 81,000 light-years, so our high-end distance is 4,571,000 light-years.

    As for the actual timeframe, it's not precisely clear, so we'll have to use a range.

    Alternate Carter enters the gate at 35:19 into the episode.

    In "The Fifth Race", the exact same gate trip to the exact same place took 33 seconds, so we can subtract that from the travel time.

    Assuming that the Asgard ship departed the very second Carter arrived on their planet (unlikely but good for a low-end), we have the following information:

    - The Goa'uld detect the approach of the Asgard at 38:21
    - There is a screen shown at 38:30 that displays the Asgard mothership being tracked through space by the Goa'uld

    As the range of Goa'uld sensors is not really known, I think using either of these times would be an unreasonable high end.

    - The Asgard beam the Goa'uld out of the base at 38:48 (the range of the Asgard transporters also isn't clearly established, but this seems good enough for a high-end, since they usually at least get into orbit of a planet before using the transporters)

    - We see the Asgard mothership above the mountain at 39:26 (this will serve as our low-end).

    Low-end: 5:19 + 33 seconds = 35:52. 39:26 - 35:52 = 3:34 (214 seconds), and using the low-end distance of 4,027,000 light-years, the speed would be 593,436,785,000c

    High-end: 38:48 - 35:52 = 2:54 (174 seconds) and using the high-end distance of 4,571,000 light-years, the speed would be 828,454,344,800c

    Deadman Switch

    We see that a UAV, which were previously calced at Mach 1.24, could be accurately targeted and shot down by ground-based Goa'uld energy weapons, or at least similar/equivalent technology.

    We also get the introduction of Aris Boch, who had the potential to be the Boba Fett of the Stargate franchise if they had bothered to have him appear in more than just this episode. Really a wasted opportunity.

    There's a scene where the zat blasts travel fairly quickly to disable some remote weapons, but as I can't find a way to pinpoint the exact location of the targets it's unquantifiable.

    There's also a scene where a blast from a Kara'kesh (hand/ribbon device) seems to travel pretty fast, but a back-of-the-envelope calc reveals it's nothing to write home about.

    As for actual calcs, let's take a look at the transcript:

    This is for the unupgraded Tel'tak transport ship. The upgraded versions are significantly faster, but we'll see if we can calc that later. For now it's simple enough, a speed of 2c.

    Demons

    A pretty lackluster episode, but there is a quantifiable feat. Namely, a piece of Goa'uld technology can activate a blast from an aerial Zat'nik'tel platform. We can calc the speed of this.

    Here is a screencap from just before the weapon fired, from somewhere above the base of the clouds:



    Judging by the shape and the thunder accompanying them, these are cumulonimbus clouds.

    Such clouds' minimum height is 460 m.

    The blast hits the ground in a very short timeframe, much less than a second. Unfortunately, I can't find a way to watch Hulu videos frame-by-frame. Fortunately, I found a copy of the episode on Dailymotion, and I found a way to download videos from that site.

    Frame rate is 25 frames/second. It takes 6 frames for the blast to hit the ground, for a speed of at least 1916.666667 m/s (Mach 5.632450753). It's possible that this scales to ordinary zat blasts, but I'm not sure.

    Also notable in this episode is that the power of staff weapon blasts seems to scale to Goa'uld with Unas hosts, as one of them tanks 3 and keeps coming.

    Rules of Engagement

    Nothing of note here

    Forever in a Day

    Very important episode plot-wise, but no calcs

    Past and Present

    Nothing

    Jolinar's Memories

    Hoo boy. Lots of stuff to cover in this two-parter.

    A Tel'tak transport ship flies between two star systems, and although the timeframe isn't clear it's pretty obvious that it was a lot faster than 2c, being an upgraded version.

    There's also this from the transcript:

    Not sure how to quantify this since it doesn't specify what types of weapons were used, how many of them, and how long it took. Still seems impressive, though.

    The Tel'tak seems to cross an impressive distance at sublight speeds when it flies from Delmak to its moon Netu in a few seconds, but it's possible some time was skipped over due to the scene cut.

    Several calcs in this episode will require me to determine the size of Netu and its distance to Delmak, so let's do that.

    Netu is described as a moon of the planet Delmak, however, like most inhabitable planets/moons in the franchise, it appears to have Earth standard gravity.

    Delmak itself is portrayed as having the same gravity, but being a much more earthlike planet, so I think we can make a reasonable assumption that Delmak is roughly the same size as Earth. This allows us to determine Netu's distance by angsizing Delmak in the sky (measuring roughly the radius of the planet here since the full diameter isn't visible):



    Diameter: 642px

    Screencap width: 891px
    Screencap height: 666px (appropriate, considering the place...)

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(891/666) = 86.259883969942

    2*atan(642/(891/tan(86.259883969942/2))) = 68.03671881702 degrees

    Using a diameter of 12,742 km, the angsize calculator gives a distance of 9438.9 km. Ridiculously close, but sci-fi is often unrealistic like that.

    Luckily, we also get a shot of Netu in Delmak's sky, so we can angsize it too:



    Using the same screen dimensions:

    2*atan(271/(891/tan(86.259883969942/2))) = 31.806549102528 degrees

    Inputting the distance we already got and solving for size on the angsize calculator gives us a diameter of 5378.6 km.

    The Tok'ra descent pods carrying SG-1 are deployed from orbit around Netu at 19:18 and arrive on its surface by 19:59, for a maximum travel time of 41 seconds.

    Here's a shot of Netu from orbit at the same position the pods were launched from:



    Chord method is being a little wonky, so using curvature scaling:



    We know from previous uses of this circle that it is 413 px in diameter. The line I measured as 104.6231332 px on the original image comes out to 19.84943324 px here.

    Netu's diameter: 5378.6 km

    Line size: 258.5040233 km

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(104.6231332/(891/tan(86.259883969942/2))) = 12.554241085542 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 1175.1 km, for a speed of 28.66097561 km/s (Mach 84.22514799). The pods and their occupants were able to survive impacting the surface at this speed unscathed.

    At 28:06, we also see a Goa'uld ring transporter send a matter stream from Netu to Delmak in approximately 1 second, for a speed of 9438.9 km/s, or Mach 27,737.81187.

    The Devil You Know

    Second part of the story. We get another feat for the Tel'tak's FTL drive, as it crosses the same distance it did in the previous episode but seemingly faster this time, and it's mentioned that they were pushing the engines to their limits. However the timeframe and distance are still unclear.

    The sensors on a Goa'uld Ha'tak in orbit of Netu were able to clearly scan the core of the moon, which is worth noting.

    Sokar also personally reacts to a staff blast from Apophis, activating his personal forcefield after the blast was fired but before it hits him. However, I can't quantify it without calc stacking.

    Again, we have a lot of calcs based on the Netu/Delmak scalings.

    At 34:50, the Tel'tak fires a Tok'ra missile that hits the surface of Netu at 34:56.

    As there's no indication that the Tel'tak changed its orbital altitude since the descent pod calcs last episode, we can use the same distance, for a speed of 195.85 km/s (Mach 575.5385113). This missile survived impact into a pool of lava at this speed and reached the moon's core before detonating.

    The Tel'tac also flies in the path of the ring transporter matter stream after it has left the surface and intercepts it before it hits its destination, but, again, I can't quantify that without calc stacking (as the transporter speed seems to vary much like the speed of the staff weapon blasts).

    Now, of course, we come to the calc that you've all been waiting for (or, at least, those of you who are familiar with the events of this episode). It's the first onscreen planetbusting (well, moonbusting) feat for the franchise, as Netu is destroyed by the Tok'ra weapon. It should be noted that it was stated in the episode that this was a chain reaction weapon, and by itself it did not have enough power to penetrate the shields of a Ha'tak motheship, and could only destroy the moon by building up a reaction in its core. However, that doesn't mean we can't calc the power of the explosion anyway.

    Here's Netu just as it starts exploding, compared with a shot of the debris field from approximately 2 seconds later:



    The main part of the debris cloud had reached a diameter of 12,187.78934 km by this time, meaning it traveled a radius of 3404.594668 km, for a speed of 1702.297334 km/s, or Mach 5002.490034.

    Now we need to find Netu's mass. As I mentioned before, it has Earth standard gravity. Inputting its diameter and that into the planetary parameters calculator, the mass is 1.063e24 Kg.

    Now we just have to find the KE. 0.5 * 1.063e24 * 1,702,297.334^2 = 1.540189317e36j, or 368.1140816 yottatons.

    Finally, we can try to get an upper limit for the durability of the Ha'tak from this. The debris begins to impact Sokar's Ha'tak at roughly the same time I took the second screencap of the explosion.

    The surface area of a sphere with a diameter of 12,187.78934 km is 4.666(again, appropriate)591125e14 m^2. This equals an intensity of 3.300459105e21 j/m^2. Now we need the surface area of the Ha'tak.

    There appeared to be no visible shield interactions when the debris hit it, so it's possible its shields were down, but the Tok'ra were confident that it would have been destroyed even if its shields had been up at full strength, so that doesn't really matter.

    The blast wave hit the ship roughly edge-on. As the dimensions of a Ha'tak are given in canon and mentioned in my season 1 calcs, and the shields form a bubble around the ship when active, I figure I can use an ellipse with the two sides being the length and height of the Ha'tak (700 and 315 m, respectively). If anything this is a lowball since the shield extends a bit beyond the hull and is three-dimensional, but it should be close enough.

    The surface area of our ellipse is 692,721.1801 m^2, meaning our Ha'tak took a punishment equal to about 2.286297926e27j, or 546.4383189 petatons. This doesn't scale to the ship's durability or anything, as this was considered more than enough to obliterate a fully shielded Ha'tak with no chance of survival at that distance. Which makes sense, as it is significantly beyond what we've seen from our previous Ha'tak calcs.

    Foothold

    Nothing to calc here

    Pretense

    We can calc the speed of the Tollan ion cannons that destroy the Ha'taks in the beginning of the episode. Luckily, I found a clip of the scene on Youtube, so we can do a frame-by-frame:



    At 25 fps, it takes one blast 40 frames to reach the orbiting Ha'tak, so 1.6 seconds.

    Making the assumption that Tollana is the same size as Earth (as it has an Earthlike environment, Earth standard gravity, and is comfortably home to a race of humans). Chord method would be awkward since so much of the planet is obscured in the shot, so curvature scaling again:

    Spoiler:



    The line I measured as 124 px on the first image comes out to 55 px on the second image. (12,742/413) * 55 = 1696.876513 km.

    Screencap width: 643 px

    Screencap height: 361 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(643/361) = 102.554285449968

    2*atan(124/(643/tan(102.554285449968/2))) = 27.047206487132 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 3527.6 km, for a speed of 2204.75 km/s, or Mach 6479.03259. It's noted that one of these cannons can destroy a Ha'tak in a few shots, but there appears to be no shield interaction, implying that the have some kind of shield piercing capability.

    Urgo

    Hilarious episode, but no quantifiable feats

    A Hundred Days

    When I watched this episode when I was younger, I always considered it to be unbearably boring. Upon rewatching it... it's still boring, but not as bad. Although, surprisingly, there is a relevant feat. The Stargate tanks a meteor impact that creates a large crater and is undamaged, just buried. However, after trying to scale it I came to the conclusion that the shape and the angle we are given of the crater are just too awkward to make an accurate scaling possible. Unfortunate, really.

    Shades of Grey

    We see that Goa'uld communication devices can work in real-time across interstellar distances. Also we have a very fast implied trip by an Asgard ship, but the distance is unknown, so it's unquantifiable.

    New Ground

    Nothing much here

    Maternal Instinct

    Oma Desala creates a storm cloud very quickly but I can't find a good way to scale its full dimensions. She also fries some Jaffa with lightning and intercepts staff weapon blasts, but the former wouldn't yield much and the latter can't be quantified without calc stacking.

    Nemesis

    Finally, something concrete. From the transcript:

    Presumably he meant Watts and not joules, as they were talking about overall power output. So that equals 4 terawatts (956.0229446 tons/second). Rather inconsistent as this ship is supposed to be significantly more powerful than a Ha'tak, but there are several explanations for this:

    - This refers to only the engines, there may be other power sources
    - The ship probably has capacitors to store accumulated energy over time
    - It's possible he meant to add a time variable (such as 'per millisecond' or something) but was cut off

    Interestingly, the wiki erroneously gives the engine output as 1000 times the stated figure in the episode. There's an entry on the article's talk page attempting to justify this, but it leads to a broken link. So for now we just have to go with what was stated in the episode.

    Also notable is that when the Beliskner crashed and burned in Earth's atmosphere, the Stargate again survived the crash undamaged. Although I doubt I can quantify this.

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Power of Beliskner's neutrino ion generators: ~956.02 tons/second
    Sokar's Ha'tak destroyed by Netu's explosion: ~546.44 petatons
    Destruction of Netu (via Tok'ra chain reaction weapon): ~368.11 yottatons

    Speed:

    Aerial Zat'nik'tel blast speed: ~Mach 5.63
    Tok'ra descent pods land on Netu: ~Mach 84.23
    Tok'ra missile hits Netu: ~Mach 575.54
    Tollan ion cannon blasts: ~Mach 6479.03
    Goa'uld ring transporter speed: ~Mach 27,737.81
    Unupgraded Tel'tak hyperspace speed: 2c
    Alternate universe Asgard mothership hyperjumps to Earth: 593,436,785,000 - 828,454,344,800c
  • Endless Mike
    Here we go.

    The Serpent's Lair

    The first one here is simple, as it's not even a calc. From the transcript:

    Very simple. Goa'uld buster nukes: >1 gigaton each. The Ha'tak shields were able to no-sell these with only the ship shaking a bit, which matches up with the multi-gigaton KE calcs I've already gotten for Goa'uld ships.

    I was also thinking of trying to calc the speed of these missiles, but the path they took would make the distance very hard to determine, the acceleration was different at different points, there were cuts so it wasn't shown all in real time according to the dialogue, and they were supposed to be based on RL ICBMs anyway, so it's just a mess all around.

    In the Line of Duty

    The blasts from the Death Glider's staff weapons create somewhat large water plumes and seem to boil a section of water early on in the episode, but I have a feeling that scaling all of that would be way more trouble than it's worth, as the glider weapons are supposed to be stronger than the handheld ones which already have some pretty impressive feats. So meh.

    Prisoners

    No calcs here, but it is mentioned that the unstable vortex from a Stargate cauterizes wounds it creates, which might be relevant sometime down the line.

    The Gamekeeper

    Nothing here

    Need

    Nothing here either

    Thor's Chariot

    There's a potential calc here, but it requires some assumptions, so it might not fly. Still, I'm doing it anyway, just to see if it can be considered valid. If not, it's no big deal.

    We're going to try to calc the speed of Thor's flagship Biliskner as it makes a hyperspace jump to the planet Cimmeria.

    Thor is first informed that the Goa'uld are on Cimmeria at 37:16 in the episode. However, he doesn't believe it until Daniel explains how they destroyed the protective device at 37:50. He discontinues the transmission at 38:22.

    The ship arrives at 40:50.

    However, there's the implication that a certain amount of time was skipped as it shows Daniel and the others meeting up with O'Neill only a few seconds after being teleported outside of the Asgard monument, when it would obviously take a lot longer to walk that distance. Unfortunately, we also had a time cut the first time they reached the monument from the cave. However, considering that the Goa'uld were searching for them the entire time, and that the sun in the sky didn't seem to change significantly between those times, I figure the maximum reasonable time elapsed would be about one hour. We can round this down a bit and use this one hour as the entire duration of the Biliskner's trip, which is still a major low-end.

    Now as for the distance, the exact location of Cimmeria is unknown, but we know it's in the Milky Way, which is actually good enough for what I'm going to attempt to do.

    As for where the Biliskner started from? Here's one of those large assumptions I mentioned, but I think it makes the most sense for it to have been somewhere in the Ida galaxy, which is the Asgard home galaxy. This is likely because most of the Asgard's military assets were involved in defending their galaxy from the Replicators at the time. It's stated that said galaxy is 4 million light-years away from the Milky Way.

    Thus crossing 4 million light-years in one hour equals a speed of 45,040,000,000c.

    Again, unsure if this can be considered a valid calc, but here it is.

    Also right after they are teleported outside of the hall, Gairwyn isn't with them, and is later teleported down from the Biliskner, implying long range FTL teleportation.

    Also worth noting is that Thor claims that he created the planet Cimmeria, but it's left vague exactly what he means by that.

    Thor's ship also seems to create/summon a thundercloud, but it looks kind of hard to scale and probably wouldn't be worth much.

    Message in a Bottle

    Nothing

    Family

    No calcs, but it's notable that Chulak has two suns, and the Goa'uld also have a virus that can fit in a kid's teeth that is powerful enough to wipe out all life on Earth in a week.

    Secrets

    No calcs, although there is a plot hole here (they could have taken Sha're to Cimmeria to remove Amonet, as Thor installed a new hammer device at the end of Thor's Chariot)

    Bane

    Nothing

    The Tok'ra, Part 1

    Nada

    The Tok'ra, Part 2

    It's mentioned that two Goa'uld motherships will arrive at the Tok'ra base within the day, perhaps hours, after being dispatched from the "Shoran'ka quadrant". However we have no information on where this is or what kind of distances are involved, so it's unquantifiable.

    There's also a scene of death gliders dispatched from the Ha'taks reaching the planet's surface, but there's a significant time cut between that so we can't really quantify that either.

    Blasts from the Goa'uld ships cause the Tok'ra tunnels to shake, and it's stated said tunnels are typically "deep underground", but we have no idea how deep, so this also can't be quantified.

    Spirits

    Nothing

    Touchstone

    The titular device of this episode is capable of manipulating the weather on a planetary scale. When it was stolen from the planet it was kept on, the weather collapsed and a worldwide blizzard formed. From the transcript:

    When the device was returned, this cleared up in minutes. It was also stated that the device was the only thing maintaining the planet's weather:

    So it was capable of at least matching the energy required to create a planet-wide blizzard.

    The planet Madrona, like most of the planets the Stargate network connects to, seems to have the same gravity and composition as Earth and so is likely comparable in size.

    Taking a cue from KaiserWombat's calc here, we'll use Earth's total surface area in the equation for the cloud volume. 510,000,000 km^2 * 2.5 km = 1,275,000,000 km^3. Cloud density is 1.003 kg/m^3, for a mass of 1.278825e18 Kg.

    Using the same values from KW's calc to get GPE, we wind up with 3.01086558e22j. However that's not the end of it. Carter also stated the wind was gusting up to 80 mph (128.748 km/h), and it was calm and placid before. But since this was a maximum gust speed, we can conservatively take the storm's average wind speed as half of that, 64.374 km/h.

    I don't think the winds would permeate the planet's entire atmosphere, so I'll just use the atmosphere below the clouds (at 2400 m). 510,000,000 km^2 * 2.4 km = 212,500,000 km^3. Air density = 1.225 kg/m^3 (it should actually be higher for colder air but I'm not sure how to account for that). So mass = 2.603125e17 Kg. Moving that at an average speed of 64.374 km/h (17.8816667 m/s) gives us a KE of 4.161798208e19j.

    There's also the temperature. The Touchstone's altered environment of the planet was basically a temperate climate, with people wearing clothes like you'd expect a stereotypical Hawaiian to wear (grass skirts and loincloths, etc.). So I figure a temperature of about 29 C would be the standard. According to Wikipedia, a blizzard by definition has temperatures of -12 C or lower.

    Let's take the total mass of the clouds and the air under them (1.5391375e18 Kg) and calculate the temperature change.

    Specific heat capacity of air roughly between 250 and 300 Kelvin (close enough) is 1.004 Kj/Kg.

    Converting the temperatures to Kelvin,

    Q = 1004 * 1.5391375e18 * (302.15 - 261.15) = 6.335705605e22j.

    Although the device was stated to have been used to terraform the entire planet, I figure it wouldn't be necessary to maintain this same temperature all over the planet, and, like most planets, it's probably hotter at the equator and cooler at the poles (simply from the differing amounts of sunlight that would reach those areas). So the entire planet likely would't have that same tropical temperature with the Touchstone activated. Meaning that, to be conservative, I can probably cut this value in half, to get 3.167852803e22j. Adding this to the GPE and wind KE, our total energy is 6.182880181e22j, or 14.77743829 teratons. Not bad for a device you can easily hold in one hand.

    I could have also tried to calc the KE of the storm being dissipated, as it only took a few minutes once the device was reactivated, but we only saw the weather restored up to the horizon and assuming the entire planet had been fully restored by that point would be unfounded, as the effect probably starts around the device and spreads outwards.

    A Matter of Time

    Some sites list this episode as coming after The Fifth Race, but I'm going by the wiki which has it before that episode.

    Also, according to a previous comment, this is Keollyn's favorite episode of the series.

    On the calc front, we have Teal'c pulling O'Neill up by a rope against the gravity of a black hole. This sounds a lot more impressive than it is, though. A back-of-the-envelope calc I did came up with something around 24,000 joules, so really not significant. Besides, Carter, Siler, and O'Neill himself contributed.

    The Fifth Race

    Jack, with the Ancient database downloaded into his head, uses the power cell of Teal'c staff weapon (among other components) to create a device to temporarily boost the power to the Stargate, so it can dial a gate in another galaxy. From the transcript:

    So how much power does it normally use? As I mentioned in my season 1 calc blog, the episode The Torment of Tantalus revealed that the energy from a lightning strike was enough to power the gate for a normal (intra-galactic) trip. It was also stated that blasts from Teal'c staff weapon wouldn't be enough (probably using the entire battery at once was what made the difference).

    Average energy in a lightning bolt = ~0.239 tons. Multiplied by ten, that's ~2.39 tons.

    Serpent's Song

    No calcs, but we do see that the cockpits of death gliders are bulletproof

    Holiday

    No calcs

    One False Step

    This is a bad episode, probably the worst of the season, but there is actually a quantifiable feat here, in regards to the speed of the SGC's UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle).

    The UAV launches at 0:30 into the episode, but doesn't actually arrive on the target planet until about 0:40.

    At 1:21 Carter switches to manual control and the UAV is clearly moving a lot more slowly than it was before, as it's only a few meters away from its eventual crash site. So our timeframe is 41 seconds.

    For distance, let's go to the transcript:

    That's not all, though. During the monitor screen while it was flying, on the lower-left of the screen, we see "ALT 2000" (it might be a bit hard to make out):



    "ALT" obviously stands for altitude, and since they used imperial units pretty much exclusively on the show at this point (see the '10 miles' quote above), this likely means 2000 feet. This altitude was maintained for most of the time they were monitoring it. As the gate is roughly around ground level, we can then take the horizontal distance of 10 miles (16.0934 km) and add a vertical distance of 4000 feet (1.2192 km), for a total distance of 17.3126 km, and a speed of 422.2585366 m/s (Mach 1.240878476).

    Show and Tell

    The Reetou rebels are armed with powerful bombs. From the transcript:

    So what is meant by a 'small nuke'? The weakest nuclear weapon ever built IRL is the Davy Crockett, which can have a yield as low as 10 tons. We can use this as an absolute minimum. The comment about leveling a couple of cities seems to imply more than this, though. The nearest city to the Cheyenne Mountain facility (and the one most often mentioned in the series) is Colorado Springs, so I suppose we can use that as a baseline.

    Measuring from its shortest dimension, Colorado Springs is about 24.9 km across:



    As Jacob said that 4 of them could level a couple of cities, 2 bombs per city seems about accurate, so we'll use the nuke calculator to find the yield for which the air blast radius (widespread destruction) is one quarter of that distance, or 6.225 km. That gives us roughly 630 kilotons/bomb.

    1969

    Great episode, and funny too, but no calcs unfortunately.

    Out of Mind

    No calcs for the season finale

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Power Booster Device powers Stargate: ~2.39 tons
    Reetou cross-phasal explosives: 10 tons - 630 kilotons each
    Goa'uld buster nukes: >1 gigaton each
    Touchstone maintains Madrona's weather: ~14.78 teratons

    Speed:


    SGC UAV cruising speed: ~Mach 1.24
    Biliskner hyperjumps to Cimmeria: ~45,040,000,000c
  • Endless Mike
    Going through it episode-by-episode. If you haven't seen the show, be aware there are some spoilers here.

    Children of the Gods (Final Cut)

    I'm using this version as I believe it supercedes the original in terms of canon. Not that there's really any difference in terms of the parts I'm calcing, though.

    Anyway, near the end of the episode, two shots from a Goa'uld staff weapon create this rather sizable hole in a solid stone wall:



    Richard Dean Anderson's height is 1.87 m. Scaling from this picture of him (yeah, he's older here, but it's the best one I could find showing his entire body, and his head-to-body ratio wouldn't change with age, I would think):



    That makes his head 0.3017603912 m tall. So the dimensions of the hole are 1.382349939 x 0.9961874057 x 0.1545400216 m.

    Modeling it as an elliptic cylinder, the volume is 0.6685746195 m

    Basic fragmentation looks correct, so at 8 j/cm^3, that's 5,348,596.956 joules total, or 2,674,298.478 joules/shot.

    This scales to Goa'uld personal shields, Kull warriors' armor, Replicators, and several other things that can shrug these off with no damage.

    There's another, less impressive showing from the weapons earlier in the episode, and a potential speed feat for the blasts, but it would be hard to calc and probably not worth it, so let's move on.

    The Enemy Within

    Nothing to calc here

    Emancipation

    No calcs - also this is one of, if not the, worst episode of the series. Don't watch it.

    The Broca Divide

    Again, nothing to really calc here.

    The First Commandment

    More staff weapon feats. First, it blasts a (strangely circular) hole through what is described as "solid rock":

    Spoiler:



    Christopher Judge's height is 1.88 m. That makes the diameter of the hole 1.065095057 m, and the depth 0.2344374276 m. Modeling it as a cylinder, the volume is 0.2088784168 m^3. Unlike the previous incidence, the explosion is more violent, and we also see lots of steam from melting effects. So I figure we can use the geometric mean between violent fragmentation (69 j/cm^3) and melting (5000 j/cm^3), which is 587.3670062 j/cm^3, for a yield of 122,688,290.3 joules. It scales to the same things mentioned above, although see the note at the end.

    This next one requires a bit of explanation. A shield is activated which requires two separate devices to function. According to the wiki which cites the RPG book for season 1 (which is secondary canon - in other words it's canon unless something in the show explicitly contradicts it, and I see no contradictions here), the devices must be placed a minimum of 10 miles (16.0934 km) and a maximum of 30 miles (48.2803 km) away from each other to function.

    In this episode, after the first device is activated, a character fires a staff weapon blast as a signal, which is seen by the person standing at the other device. So you can see what I'm getting at here.

    First we'll use GIMP to measure the angle of the weapon when it was fired:



    43.98 degrees

    If we imagine a right triangle including this angle, the distance over the ground to the second device, and the path of the blast as the hypotenuse, we can find the distance. The third angle would be 180 - (90 + 43.98), or 46.02 degrees.

    Via the Law of Sines, b/sin(90) = 16.0934/sin(46.02) = 18.02243062

    b is the value we want to solve for.

    sin(90) = 0.8939966636, so b/0.8939966636 = 18.02243062, meaning that b = 16.11199284 km, for the low-end.

    For the high-end, we just run the equation with the higher number.

    b/0.8939966636 = 48.2803/sin(46.02) = 54.06740385

    b = 48.33607865 km.

    The shot seems to traverse the distance nigh-instantly, unfortunately I cannot find a clip of the scene at normal speed on Youtube, so I can't count frames. So I'll use 1 second, which is probably a lowball, but close enough. This gives the blast a speed ranging from Mach 47.34782932 to Mach 142.0437822. Very impressive, but again see the note at the end.

    Cold Lazarus

    No calcs here, but we do get the information that staff blasts are hot enough to melt quartz, which is useful.

    The Nox

    I was thinking I could do the GPE for the Nox floating city, but there's no real way to scale it and it probably wouldn't be that impressive in context.

    Brief Candle

    Nothing here

    The Torment of Tantalus

    Again, no calcs, but we are informed that Teal'c's staff weapon isn't powerful enough to power the Stargate, but a lightning strike is. Considering the average energy in lightning bolts, that does match up with my calcs so far, although in a later episode we see the power source for the staff weapon used to enhance the gate, so there's a possible inconsistency here.

    Bloodlines

    There's some impressive HtH combat and a demonstration that the staff weapon can shoot on a rapidfire mode (although the individual blasts seem a lot less powerful) but no calcs

    Fire and Water

    Nada

    Hathor

    A Goa'uld sarcophagus overloads and explodes, but the explosion isn't very big and it would be hard to calc anyway. Also, this episode sucks.

    Singularity

    Here we go. Nirrti creates a naquadah bomb in Cassandra's body, and we can try to calc the yield of said bomb by the information provided in the episode transcript.

    Calcing the explosion of the samples would be very difficult as we only see a brief shot of the room, and Carter likely wasn't being precise when she said 'a million times bigger', but there is more information that can help us.

    They eventually decide to take Cassandra to the bottom of an abandoned nuclear facility, where the explosion hopefully won't do too much damage.

    Typical floor/storey height: 3 m, so the depth is 90 m underground.

    Jack and Daniel were slightly nervous about standing on the ground level of this place, and only stayed because Carter did (in the end the bomb didn't go off). So it's probably safe to say that it was at least powerful enough to fragment all of the rock in a radius around it equal to the depth of 90 meters. This is probably a lowball since it was stated to be a nuclear reaction so it would likely vaporize or melt a lot of the closer rock, but I don't know how to determine what percentage would be affected in each way.

    (4/3) * pi * 90^3 = 3,053,628.059 m^3

    At 8j/cm^3, that equals 2.442902447e13j, or 5.838676978 kilotons.

    This is a very simple explosive device, maybe about the size of a baseball, which could be created using something as common as potassium and the small amount of naquadah that can safely exist in a person's bloodstream.

    Cor-ai

    Nothing

    Enigma

    An offscreen feat is mentioned, but it's a very impressive one, probably the most powerful thing in the entire 1st season. Once again, going to the transcript.

    So they not only blew up their own planet, but the explosion was so powerful it knocked a nearby planet out of orbit. As we're given a fictional unit of measurement for how far the planet was moved, and said unit is never mentioned again (AFAIK), that's kind of a problem. However, in the episode we do see the result of this orbital shift on the planet - massive volcanic activity everywhere, making it completely uninhabitable for human life, to the point where it had to be evacuated.

    I'm going to have to make some assumptions here, as I'm not sure exactly how to quantify this.

    First, I'm going to assume that Tollan has the same mass and dimensions as Earth (it had the same gravity and a very similar environment prior to the cataclysm, and the wiki says that it was very similar to Earth, so this seems fine).

    There is also more information on the destruction (sourced from the secondary canon RPG book):

    This article seems to posit a similar situation to what happened in the episode. With this information, I think a conservative estimate would be that the planet was struck with the equivalent of 10% of its own rotational kinetic energy, which would be enough to shift its rotation and orbit significantly.

    RKE of Earth = 2.138e29j. So Tollan was hit with at least 2.138e28j from the explosion.

    How far away was the exploding planet, though?

    The closest any planet in the solar system gets to Earth is Venus during its inferior conjunction, where its distance is 41 million km.

    The cross-sectional surface area of the Earth is 127,516,118 km^2. The surface area of a sphere with a radius of 41,000,000 km is 2.1124069e16 km^2. Dividing, we get 165,658,030.8. Multiplying that by the energy that hit the planet, our total yield is 3.541768698e36j, or 846.503035 yottatons. Keep in mind this is almost certainly a lowball. The Tollan being able to easily create a device with this kind of power also says a lot about the more advanced civilizations like the Asgard and Ancients.

    This is also the first planetbusting feat ever seen or referred to in the franchise.

    Solitudes

    The Stargate, when activated, creates tremors large enough to be picked up on seismographs, although finding the nearest seismograph to the location in Antarctica and finding the minimum energy of an earthquake that could be detected on said seismograph proved basically impossible when I tried.

    There is also a scene where several helicopters reach Antarctica from the SGC in what appears to be a short time, but I'm not calcing that for two reasons:

    1. There is a cut so the time elapsed would have to be estimated (all we really know was that it was sometime during the same day when it was still light out)

    2. This was probably a narrative convenience by the writers, as the helicopters in question were RL models with no enhanced capabilities.

    Tin Man

    The robot duplicates of SG-1 perform a few superhuman feats, but nothing worth calcing. Harlan's weapon also disintegrates one of them, but it looks to be some kind of weird chain reaction and not DET.

    There But for the Grace of God

    This episode contains one of the most oft-cited figures that appears in vs. debates involving the franchise. Going to the transcript:

    200 megatons per blast. Very simple. Sort of (see the second note at the end).

    Politics

    As this one is a clip show, no calcs

    Within the Serpent's Grasp

    We see the Zat'nik'tel weapons' rarely - used disintegration ability, but again it's more like a weird Star Trek style chain reaction than actual vaporization.

    For the next feat we can go to the transcript:

    10c. Straightforward. However, it later turns out that these ships were upgraded significantly, and were a lot faster than Teal'c thought.

    Meaning they were ~10 light-years from Earth.

    But later:

    But how much faster? The timeframe isn't clearly stated, but the wiki has generously done the math for us.

    Looks right to me.

    14,600 - 87,600c.

    The ships are still pretty fast once they drop to sublight, as we see them passing by Saturn very quickly. Again, I can't find this scene on Youtube (at normal speed at least), so no frame-by-frame. Instead, I've taken a two screenshots as close to 1 second apart as I could manage (before you ask, it was confirmed earlier in the episode that the window on the bridge isn't a video screen but an actual opening to space, covered by a forcefield, so I can use the whole shot for angsizing):

    Spoiler:



    Screencap width: 729 px
    Screencap height: 411 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(729/411) = 102.320059985094

    2*atan(181/(729/tan(102.320059985094/2))) = 34.275747959078 degrees

    Saturn's polar diameter: 108,728 km.

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 176,300 km.

    In the second screencap it appears 1.093922652 times as large, meaning the distance is 0.9141414141 times less, so it's 161,163.1313 km away, for a speed of 15,136.8687 km/s, or Mach 44,482.26131.

    Now we can get the KE, but first we'll have to try to get the volume of the Ha'tak, which will be annoying since it's such a complex shape. Why couldn't they have just stuck to simple pyramids? :arg Lucky for us, there are canon sizes for all 3 of its dimensions.

    This is the best picture I could find showing it in all of its dimensions. Let's start by scaling the central pyramid:



    If the total height is 315 m, then the sides of the base of the pyramid are 174.5091164 m. Squaring that would give us 30,453.43171 m^2, but as it's a triangle we divide that by 2 to get 15,226.71586 m^2. Then multiply by the height and divide by 3 to get a volume of 1,598,805.165 m^3.

    Now I'll measure the volume of each of those little wedges. Modeling them as trapezoidal prisms (not exact, but the best I can figure):

    Base 1: 39.55285707 m
    Base 2: 10.53380112 m
    Height: 80.25813012 m
    Length: 28.77142695 m

    (39.55285707 + 10.53380112)/2 * 80.25813012 m * 28.77142695 = 57,828.57619 m^3. Multiply that by 6 since there are 6 of these structures to get 346,971.4571 m^3.

    Next, measuring the tops of the bifurcated wedges.

    Base 1: 28.23055442 m
    Base 2: 16.30709044 m
    Height: 16.36825224 m
    Length (average): 36.65789427 m

    Volume: 13,361.86488

    Multiply by 3 since there are 3 of them: 40,085.59463 m^3

    Now the bifurcated wedges themselves (or the halves of them).

    Base 1: 60.53005124 m
    Base 2: 28.23055442 m
    Height: 84.7827155 m
    Length (average): 22.90937789 m

    Volume: 86,200.7173 m^3

    Multiply by 6 since there are 6 of them: 517,204.3038 m^3

    Finally, the narrow structures to the sides of the pyramid between the wedges. Modeling it as a rectangular solid.

    Length: 49.86801315 m
    Width: 22.8238874 m
    Height: 6.13161558 m

    Volume: 6978.893975 m^3

    Multiply by 6 since there are 6 of these segments: 41,873.36385 m^3

    Total volume: 2,544,939.884 m^3.

    Applying 80% hollowness: 508,987.9769 m^3

    Using the same steel density I used in my previous calc, the mass is 4,021,005,017 kg. Surprisingly around 5 times less than Ra's pyramid ship, even though it was smaller (I guess because the Ha'tak has so much empty space instead of being a single solid object).

    KE = 4.606559732e23j, or 110.09942 teratons.

    Note 1: Like most sci-fi energy weapons that are used often in a franchise (e.g. Star Wars blasters), the staff weapon calcs are bound to be very inconsistent. So they won't always be as fast/weak or as slow/powerful as the calcs suggest.

    Note 2: This actually happened in an alternate universe, which is often used by people to question the 200 megaton figure, but there's no indication the Goa'uld technology was any different in that universe, and I already have KE calcs for Ra's ship and the Ha'taks from the prime universe that corroborate this figure. Still, I'll label it as being from an alternate universe on the calc list.

    Note 3: Although the transcript I linked spells it "Sureeta", the wiki uses "Sarita", so I'll be using that in my final tally

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Staff blasts blow hole in wall: 2,674,298.478 joules/shot
    Staff blast uncovers solar radiation shield: 122,688,290.3 joules
    Nirrti's naquadah bomb in Cassandra: ~5.84 kilotons
    Alternate universe Goa'uld Ha'tak cannons: 200 megatons/shot
    Ha'taks approaching Earth KE: ~110.1 teratons
    Tollan power source destroys Sarita: >846.5 yottatons

    Speed:


    Staff blast signals Teal'c to activate solar radiation shield: ~Mach 47.35 - 142.04
    Ha'tak sublight cruising speed: ~Mach 44,482.26
    Unupgraded Ha'tak hyperspace speed: 10c
    Upgraded Ha'tak hyperspace speed: 14,600 - 87,600c
  • Endless Mike
    Here we go. Starting with the 1994 movie, since it was the first part of the franchise. Although the canon issue between the movies and TV series is kind of weird. Basically, the TV series aren't canon to the movie, but the movie is canon to the TV series (with a few changes to account for the different actors and other minutiae they changed for the series). But basically, something very similar/practically identical to the events from the movie occurred in the backstory to the series. They even show a clip of Ra's ship taking off from the movie in the SG-1 episode 'Politics'. So the movie should be fair game for canon calcs.

    Unfortunately, there aren't that many. One thing I was trying to calc was the nuke that Ra enhanced 100x with naquadah, but the problem is that I can't find the yield of the nuke originally. It's never stated in the movie and it's too blurry to make out what's written on it. If I were to compare it to similarly-sized United States nuclear weapons in service at the time the movie was made, the closest would be the W80, which has a maximum yield of 150 kilotons. Multiplying that by 100, of course, gives us 15 megatons. The problem is that Ra implied that this boosted weapon was intended to wipe out the human civilization on Earth. Unless he thought we all lived in one city or something, this makes no sense. Even if we take the most powerful nuke ever built, the Tsar Bomba, and up its yield by 100x, that's still only 5 gigatons, hardly enough to collapse human civilization.

    So tentatively I'm going to label this at 15 megatons+

    The next one will be harder to do, but require much less guesswork. Towards the end of the movie, Ra's ship reaches orbit in a very short timeframe. Let's scale how far up it was:



    Assuming Abydos is the same size as Earth (reasonable, as the gravity and atmosphere are the same, and it has similar environments).

    Using the chord method, R = h/2+c^2/8h = 1795.967177 px

    Earth radius: 6371 km
    Chord length: 2781.854488 km

    Screencap width: 853 px
    Screencap height: 359 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(853/359) = 117.983120504114

    2*atan(784.1970416/(853/tan(117.983120504114/2))) = 113.646977674414 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 909.38 km.

    Let's scale Ra's ship so we can angsize it too and subtract the distance.

    In the movie, the pyramid that it landed on was stated to be an exact replica of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Ra's ship fits snugly around it, as seen here.

    Each side of the Great Pyramid's base measures 230.4 meters.

    Scaling:



    Ra's ship base: 373.4778285 m.

    Angsizing again, from the first screencap:

    2*atan(185.5397532/(853/tan(117.983120504114/2))) = 39.78875278031 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 516.02 m. So our distance is roughly 908.86398 km.

    We are conveniently given a timeframe with the bomb countdown, which was at 45 seconds when the ship was barely hovering over the pyramid and 6 seconds when it was beamed up, so 39 seconds is our low-end. But as that happens a bit after the screencap I took of the ship in orbit, we can also measured the elapsed time in the movie here, which is ~31 seconds.

    Low-end: 23.30420462 km/s, or Mach 68.483366

    High-end: 29.3181929 km/s, or Mach 86.15649271

    Since we already started scaling the ship, let's finish so we can estimate a mass and get a KE.



    Modeling it as a rectangular pyramid attached to an inverse truncated rectangular pyramid:

    Height = 252.9728522 m
    Height of bottom part: 30.79184977 m
    Second base of bottom part: 334.9451115 m
    Volume of top part: 11,762,030.81 m^3
    Volume of bottom part: 3,867,132.9038735 m^3
    Combined volume: 15,629,163.71 m^3

    As it had an empty space in the middle big enough to fit the pyramid, let's subtract the volume of the Great Pyramid (2,583,283 m^3) from that, to get 13,045,880.71 m^3. As the Goa'uld technology is powered by naquadah, which is stated to be super dense (although still light enough for humans to comfortably carry), I figure using steel instead of titanium as a density would be logical. Using the average steel density of 7900 kg/m^3, and applying 80% hollowness, we get a mass of 2.061249152e10 kg.

    KE (low-end): 5.5971773e18j (1.337757481 gigatons)
    KE (high-end): 8.858799863e18j (2.117303983 gigatons)

    And that's pretty much it for the movie.

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Ra's naquadah-enhanced nuke: >15 megatons
    Ra's ship reaches orbit: ~1.34 - 2.12 gigatons

    Speed:

    Ra's ship reaches orbit: ~Mach 68.43 - 86.16

    Next up is the first season of SG-1
  • Endless Mike
    From my Calc request blog.

    1. Superman flies black hole bomb to safe distance (DC Comics Elseworlds/Red Son, requested by Sir Jogga)

    As I haven't actually read Red Son yet (sue me, I know), I'm just going by the scans he linked me. First, let's try to get the power of the bomb:

    http://i.imgur.com/znVy85N.jpg

    I don't know if the black holes themselves are ever shown directly (if they are I could calc their M/E equivalent via Schwarzschild radius) but just going by what we have here, the comic says it can wipe out everything within a 15 million mile (24,140,160 km) radius.

    I'll interpret this as it being able to mass-scatter the Earth if the farthest point of the Earth from the epicenter was that distance away.

    So let's subtract the Earth's radius (6371 km) from this distance to get the point where the Earth will be hit by the maximum force. That gives us 24,233,789 km. A sphere with that radius has a surface area of 7.319154029e15 km^2.

    Cross-sectional surface area of Earth = 127,516,118 km^2. Divide the previous value by this to get 57,397,873.65. Now we just have to multiply this by the GBE of the Earth (2.24e32j) to get our yield: 1.28571237e40j, or 3.072926314 tenatons.

    Now for the speed. It appears that he flew from Earth to past Jupiter in under 57 seconds. Said planet ranges from 588 million - 968 million km away. Let's add the radius of the explosion to that (as the blast apparently didn't harm Jupiter) to get a range of 612,140,160 - 992,140,160 km.

    Low-end: 10,730,301.05 km/s or 35.82245239c
    High-end: 17,405,967.72 km/s or 58.06005873c

    2. Motherglare Dragon Roar
    (Fairy Tail, requested by EternalRage)

    He gave me these three scans:

    http://[Blocked Domain]/uploads/chapters/2004/334/p_00008.png
    http://[Blocked Domain]/uploads/chapters/2004/334/p_00009.png
    https://i.gyazo.com/2fddf53d61c125c46d8fa68793de3108.png

    But I fail to see how the 3rd one is relevant (at first I thought it was the target area before the explosion, but checking over the chapters doesn't support that). He also said something about scaling from the stadium on the 3rd scan, but I don't see that stadium in any of the other scans...

    I was about to give up on this one until I found a way I could do it without using the 3rd scan.

    In fact, all I need is this panel (ignore some of the scaling lines, I didn't use them all)



    Window height: 1.5 m
    Half roof length: 2.867775781 m

    Assuming the size of the roofs is relatively the same for each small building, we can get the distance to the one closest to the PoV.

    Panel width: 869 px
    Panel height: 419 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(869/419) = 110.897348856862

    2*atan(15/(869/tan(110.897348856862/2))) = 2.871876147056 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 57.202 m.

    Assuming the FT world is the same size as Earth (I'm unaware of any different claims), we can plug this value into the horizon equation, since the blast occurred pretty much directly on the horizon.

    d = 3.57 * sqr(57.202) = 27.00062536 km

    Angsizing again:

    2*atan(389.5137995/(869/tan(110.897348856862/2))) = 66.12277996125 degrees

    Solving for size, we get a diameter of 35.151 km. The radius is then 17.5755 km. Using air blast (near-total fatalities) on the nuke calculator, the yield comes out to around 278 megatons.

    3. Iron Man's chest repulsor blast vs. Graviton (Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes, requested by Gemmysaur)



    As this takes place in Manhattan, and standard lane width there is 12 ft (3.6576 m), the crater diameter would be around 21.9456 m. Depth seems about the same as Graviton's height. Animated Graviton has no official height, but the 616 version is 6' 1" (1.8542 m).

    Using the dome volume calculator, the volume is 354.02 m^3. Using violent fragmentation (69 c/cm^3) we get 2.442738e10j, or 5.838283939 tons.

    4. Superman pushes rock to block dam (Fleischer Superman cartoons, requested by Sir Jogga)



    Let's do some scaling:



    Window height: 1.5 m
    Dam breach width: 56.04542801 m

    Just for convenience's sake we can treat the rock's width as being around the same.



    Rock height: 89.94827209 m

    Modeling it as an ellipsoid with its third dimension equal to the width (which looks to be about accurate), volume is 147,935.3037 m^3. Since I don't know what kind of rock it is, I'll use continental crust density, 2.7 g/cm^3, so the mass is 399,425,319.9 kg.

    Distance it traveled (measured from where it first appears on the screen to where it lands): 104.5647723 m

    For some reason VLC media player's frame-by-frame function won't work properly with the video clip I was linked. Luckily, I found a Youtube version so I can use rowvid. It says the video runs at 25 frames/second, and the rock crosses the distance in 7 frames, for a speed of 373.4456154 m/s, which gives it a KE of 2.785225261e13j, or 6.656848139 kilotons.

    5. Queen Chrysalis tanks explosion (My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, requested by Foxthefox1000)



    Before the explosion, the clouds look most like cumulus clouds. Said clouds typically range from 550 to 2400 m in altitude, so I'll average it and use 1475 m.

    Scaling:



    The large cloud was completely dispersed past the edge of the screen, so it cleared a radius of at least 1296.530249 m. I can't find a standard height/thickness for cumulus clouds, so I'll just assume the ratio is similar to that of the base/height of the cloud in the background.

    135/34 = 3.676470588

    (1296.530249 * 2)/3.676470588 = 705.3124555 m

    pi * 1296.530249^2 * 705.3124555 = 3,724,746,608 m^3

    At 1.003 kg/m^3 for cloud density, that comes to 3,735,920,848 kg.

    On Rowvid at 25 frames/second, it takes 15 frames for the cloud to fully disperse, giving it a speed of 2160.883748 m/s (Mach 6.250124154) and a KE of 8.722289096e15j (2.084677126 megatons)

    6. Graviton levitates cities (Marvel Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    http://s80.photobucket.com/user/A_Flight10/media/Thunderbolts056p21_zpsshudbpad.jpg.html

    Scaling the front part of Manhattan Island from a map of said island:

    Spoiler:



    Manhattan Island is 21.6 km long, making the front part I measured 814.4406266 m long. The depth of the rock underneath (seems to be the average from where I measured it) would then be 189.237675 m.

    Area of Manhattan Island = 59 km^2. Volume = 1.116502283e10 m^3. Since I'm lazy and I don't feel like looking up the individual rock types under all of the listed cities, I'm going to use continental crust density, 2.7 g/cm^3, for a mass of 3.014556163e13 kg. I saw someone (conservatively) estimate the aboveground weight of Manhattan at 125,208,467 tons (113,587,210,581.2 kg), so add that to the above figure to get 3.025914884e13 kg.

    We can see that the city has been lifted up above the clouds. Again they look like cumulus clouds, so I'll use 1475 m altitude, plus half of the depth (94.6188375 m) for the center of gravity, 1569.618838 m.

    9.81 * 1569.618838 * 3.025914884e13 = 4.659291877e17. But that's just for Manhattan.

    Assuming the same average rock depth and altitude for all of the cities, we can get their volumes from their areas (there might have been more cities affected but I don't know which comic it's from so I'm just going by the ones listed on the scan):

    Washington D.C. land area: 158.1 km^2
    Chicago land area: 589 km^2
    Los Angeles land area: 1214 km^2
    San Francisco land area: 121.4 km^2
    Denver land area: 400 km^2
    Dallas land area: 881.9 km^2
    Miami land area: 92.4 km^2
    Atlanta land area: 344.9 km^2
    Boston land area: 125.41 km^2
    Philadelphia land area: 347.3 km^2
    Montreal land area: 365.65 km^2
    Toronto land area: 630.21 km^2
    Ottawa land area: 2778.13 km^2
    Mexico City land area: 1485 km^2
    London land area: 1572 km^2
    Moscow land area: 2511 km^2
    Paris land area: 105.4 km^2
    Stockholm land area: 188 km^2
    Rome land area: 1285 km^2
    Frankfurt land area: 248.31 km^2
    Tokyo land area: 2187.66 km^2
    Beijing land area: 1368 km^2
    Melbourne land area: 9990.5 km^2
    Sydney land area: 12,367.7 km^2
    Tel Aviv land area: 52 km^2
    Jerusalem land area: 125.156 km^2
    Cairo land area: 528 km^2
    New Delhi land area: 42.7 km^2
    Havana land area: 2555.055 km^2
    Brasilia land area: 5802 km^2
    Buenos Aires land area: 203 km^2

    Total: 50,664.881 km^2
    Volume: 9.587704285e12 m^3
    Mass: 2.588680157e16 Kg

    As the aboveground weight estimate was specific for Manhattan, we can't use it for all of the other cities, however it should correlate very closely with population density, so we can take the aboveground weight of Manhattan per square km (1,925,206,959 kg) and multiply that by the ratio between population densities. Manhattan's population density = 27,812.2/km^2.

    Washington D.C. population density: 4308/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 298,206,958.8 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 4.714652019e10 Kg
    Chicago population density: 4447.4/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 307,828,771.1 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.813111462e11 Kg
    Los Angeles population density: 3198/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 221,370,904 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 2.687442775e11 Kg
    San Francisco population density: 7174/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 496,596,268 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 6.028678694e10 Kg
    Denver population density: 1561/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 108,055,028.5 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 4.32220114e10 Kg
    Dallas population density: 1407/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 97,394,891.14 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 8.58925545e10 Kg
    Miami population density: 4770/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 330,187,370.8 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 3.050931306e10 Kg
    Atlanta population density: 1299/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 89,918,950.67 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 3.101304609e10 Kg
    Boston population density: 5344/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 369,920,610 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 4.63917437e10 Kg
    Philadelphia population density: 4492.4/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 310,971,434.9 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.080003793e11 Kg
    Montreal population density: 4662.1/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 322,718,352.5 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.180019656e11 Kg
    Toronto population density: 4149.5/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 287,235,323.9 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.810185735e11 Kg
    Ottawa population density: 334.8 km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 23,175,415.46 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 6.438431695e10 Kg
    Mexico City population density: 6000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 415,330,026.2 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 6.167650889e11 Kg
    London population density: 5518/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 381,965,180.7 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 6.004492641e11 Kg
    Moscow population density: 8537.2/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 590,959,249.9 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.483898676e12 Kg
    Paris population density: 21,000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 1,453,655,092 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.532152467e11 Kg
    Stockholm population density: 5000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 346,108,355.2 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 6.506837078e10 Kg
    Rome population density: 2232/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 154,502,769.7 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.985360591e11 Kg
    Frankfurt population density: 3000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 207,665,013.1 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 5.15652994e10 Kg
    Tokyo population density: 6224.66/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 430,881,366.8 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 9.426219309e11 Kg
    Beijing population density: 1300/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 89,988,172.34 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.231038198e11 Kg
    Melbourne population density: 453/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 31,357,416.98 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 3.132761744e11 Kg
    Sydney population density: 400/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 27,688,668.41 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 3.424451443e11 Kg
    Tel Aviv population density: 8354.3/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 578,298,606.3 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 3.007152753e10 Kg
    Jerusalem population density: 6917.1/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 478,813,220.7 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 5.992634745e10 Kg
    Cairo population density: 19,376/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 1,341,239,098 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 7.081742437e11 Kg
    New Delhi population density: 6000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 415,330,026.2 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.773459212e10 Kg
    Havana population density: 2892/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 200,189,072.6 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 5.114940909e11 Kg
    Brasilia population density: 480.827/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 33,283,648 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.931117257e11 Kg
    Buenos Aires population density: 14,000/km^2
    Aboveground weight/km^2: 969,103,394.4 Kg
    Aboveground weight: 1.967280987e11 Kg

    Total aboveground weight: 7.87410833541e12 Kg
    Total mass: 2.589467568e16 Kg

    9.81 * 1569.618838 * 2.589467568e16 = 3.98725201e20j. Add that to the Manhattan yield for a grand total of 3.991911302e20j, or 95.40896994 gigatons.

    #7. Jonah Hex deflects bullets (Post-Crisis DC Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/14/142946/3379851-img_0443[1].png
    http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/14/142946/3379853-img_0444[1].png

    Scaling (ignore some of the lines as I ended up not using them all):



    Jonah Hex's official height: 5' 11" (1.8034 m)

    He's a superhero (well, effectively) so he should be drawn 8.5 heads tall, so his head is 0.2121647059 m tall.

    Panel width: 302 px
    Panel height: 351 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(302/351) = 62.134376371776

    2*atan(50/(302/tan(62.134376371776/2))) = 11.392215839832 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 1.0635 m

    As the guns most resemble Colt Single Action Army revolvers, the bullets are most likely 0.45 Colt rounds, which are 1.6 inches (0.04064 m) long. Since they're close to the PoV we can scale the distance directly, coming up with 0.1345327003 m.

    Jonah's sword length (roughly): 0.8868484707 m.

    It's hard to tell exactly but it appears as if he swung it at least in a full half circle (probably a lowball), so 0.8868484707 * pi = 2.78611664 m, in the time it took the bullets to cross 0.1345327003 m, making his sword and hand 20.70958684 times faster than the bullets. According to the Wikipedia article, typical muzzle velocity for this gun at the time was around 300 m/s, making Jonah Hex's speed 6212.876053 m/s, or Mach 18.25759221.

    #8. Ultraman Zero flies outside of the universe (Ultraman, requested by An uncertain Starman)



    When we see him flying through the galaxy clusters, most of them appear to be spiral galaxies. Such galaxies typically range from 10 - 300 thousand light-years in diameter, so we'll average it and use 155,000.

    Scaling:



    Screencap width: 1121 px
    Screencap height: 629 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(1121/629) = 102.586630961996

    2*atan(167.2961446/(1121/tan(102.586630961996/2))) = 21.099279689012 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 416,140 light-years.

    Here's the same scene 4 frames later (using Rowvid at 25 frames/second):



    Angsizing again:

    2*atan(104.6947945/(1121/tan(102.586630961996/2))) = 13.295325087876 degrees

    For a distance of 664,970 light-years, for a speed of 1,555,187.5 light-years/second. However, as we're viewing him pass the galaxies at roughly a 45 degree angle instead of seeing it head-on, we can effectively double that for a full speed of 98,088,786,000,000c. As he seemed to be continuously accelerating throughout the clip, however, this is a low-end if anything.

    #9. Iron Man powers helicarrier rotor (Marvel Cinematic Universe, requested by Adriusus)



    At first I was worried this would require some crazy complex scaling, yet then I thought of a shortcut: as this version of the Helicarrier is powered by what are essentially 4 giant fans, then we can determine the energy outputted by each one as 1/4th of the energy of the Helicarrier in flight.

    For its mass, it's basically an aircraft carrier with 4 huge fans added to the sides, so I figure I can be lazy and use the displacement of the heaviest RL Aircraft Carrier, the Nimitz-class (106,300 tons) and increase it by 20% to get 127,560 tons.

    In this clip, we are conveniently given an altitude of 18,000 (feet, presumably), showing that the Helicarrier can reach at least that high (although it did say they were still climbing). 18,000 ft = 5486.4 m.

    127,560 tons = 115,720,485 Kg

    9.81 * 5486.4 * 111,720,485 = 6.012973468e12j. That's just GPE, though, we also have to add the KE.

    I can't find any canon size for the MCU Helicarrier, so we'll have to scale it. The fighters on its deck were F-35s, which have a length of ~15.4 meters.



    Once again using Rowvid at 25 frames/second and comparing screencaps 4 frames apart:



    Front section of Helicarrier: 34.43544685 m
    Height above water in first screencap: 38.29231407 m
    Height above water in second screencap: 42.22493205 m
    Rate of ascent: 24.57886236 m/s

    0.5 * 115,720,485 * 24.57886236^2 = 3.495455717e10j

    Total energy: 6.047928025e12j

    Divided by 4 to get the power of each fan, and the KE of Iron Man accelerating it: 1.511982006e12j, or 361.3723724 tons.

    I'm guessing you probably also wanted to know how fast he was going. Back to Rowvid then.

    This time we're looking at two screencaps 1 frame apart from each other. On the first one I measured the angle to where he is on the second:



    From my previous scaling, rotor diameter = 45.11446033 m
    Radius of Iron Man's path: 18.30516698 m

    Measuring the angle in GIMP, I get 95.48 degrees.

    180/95.48 = 1.885211563

    (18.30516698 * pi)/1.885211563 = 30.50446923 m. At 25 frames/second, that's 762.6117306 m/s or Mach 2.241064182.

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    - AEMH Iron Man's repulsor blast vs. Graviton: ~5.84 tons
    - MCU Iron Man powers Helicarrier rotor: ~361.37 tons
    - MCU Helicarrier's thrust: ~1.45 kilotons
    - Fleischer Superman pushes rock to block dam: ~6.66 kilotons
    - Queen Chrysalis tanks explosion: ~2.08 megatons
    - Motherglare dragon roar: 278 megatons*
    - Graviton levitates cities: ~95.41 gigatons
    - Red Son black hole bomb: ~3.07 tenatons

    Speed:

    - MCU Iron Man powers Helicarrier rotor: ~Mach 2.24
    - Jonah Hex deflects bullets: ~Mach 18.26
    - Red Son Superman flies black hole bomb to safe distance: ~35.82 - 52.06c
    - Ultraman Zero flies out of universe: 98,088,786,000,000c

    * Will probably not be added to the list since many people have tried and disagree about the methods and assumptions used

    Calcs I didn't do:

    Something from One Piece (One Piece, requested by Hdw)

    Reason: Links don't work

    Toshiro and Bakugo's best attacks (Boku no Hero Academia, requested by RadicalMrR)

    Reason: Links don't work

    Rain blotting out the sun (Mortal Kombat, requested by kingdok777)

    Reason: Links don't work

    Ultron sentry smashes street (Marvel Cinematic Universe, requested by kingdok777)

    Reason: Looks annoying to scale, not really sure how to account for the earthquake part, don't know asphalt fragmentation value and it probably wouldn't be impressive anyway

    Asteroid destruction (Transformers Armada, requested by Crimson Dragoon)

    Reason: Iwandesu did it already. I could add it to the calc list except I'm not quite sure how to label it.

    Bill Cipher kills Time Baby (Gravity Falls, requested by TTGL)

    Reason: He has a source for the weight/mass of the creature, but that won't help finding vaporization/disintegration values by itself.

    Superman bench presses the Earth (DC Comics New 52, requested by Tobias Foxtrot)

    Reason: It's more of an endurance/stamina feat than an energy feat anyway, and any value I give it would undersell it massively due to that. Not to mention I'm quite unsure of what method to use in the first place.

    Green Arrow outruns arrow (DC Comics New 52, requested by XImpossibruX)

    Reason: After messing around with it for a while, I can't find a way to accurately get the difference between the distance the arrow and Ollie crossed, which I would need to get a figure. Without that the most I can say was that he was faster than the arrow (which should be around 100 m/s or so)

    Avengers nuclear bomb yield (Marvel Cinematic Universe, requested by Adriusus)

    Reason: There's no real way to measure the power of the explosion in space against a non-inert target like a spaceship, at least none that I know of.

    Some MLP thing (My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, requested by Foxthefox1000)

    Reason: I can't figure out what he wants me to try to calc in the first link he gave me. Be more specific next time.

    Moon Knight bullet dodge (Marvel Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    Reason: We don't see him react to the bullet in-flight, so it can't be proven to not be aimdodging (this applies to both of the feats he posted)

    Moon Knight reacts to gun click (Marvel Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    Reason: I don't how how to get a timeframe for this

    Chaos throws galaxies (Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow, requested by Soma Cruz)

    Reason: I see a space backdrop with galaxies moving in the background, but I don't see anyone actually throwing them or them being used as attacks or being dodged like he says

    Some meteor thing (Fairy Tail, requested by Rax)

    Reason: I do not accept calc requests from this poster

    Iron Man and War Machine blast Whiplash (Marvel Cinematic Universe, requested by Adriusus)

    Reason: Can't see a good way to scale it or get applicable destruction values

    Irene vaporizing snow and dispersing snow clouds (Fairy Tail, requested by Rax)

    Reason: I do not accept calc requests from this poster

    Iron Man and Mandarin's combined blast (Marvel Comics, requested by Adriusus)

    Reason: Two of the images are broken

    Iron Man siphons energy from Jupiter's magnetic field (Marvel Comics, requested by Adriusus)

    Reason: The comic says he siphoned some of it, but never specifies how much

    Something from Naruto (Naruto, requested by ragaz)

    Reason: Links don't work

    Franky destroys a bridge (One Piece, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    Reason: Links don't work

    Perona blows holes in concrete (One Piece, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    Reason: Links don't work
  • Endless Mike
    First of all, plug for my DW novel feat blogs:

    https://forums.hero-academia.com/xfa-blog-entry/doctor-who-eu-misc-feats-and-stuff.26582/
    https://forums.hero-academia.com/xfa-blog-entry/doctor-who-eu-misc-feats-and-stuff-continued.34003/
    https://forums.hero-academia.com/xfa-blog-entry/doctor-who-eu-misc-feats-and-stuff-part-3.34377/
    https://forums.hero-academia.com/xfa-blog-entry/doctor-who-eu-misc-feats-and-stuff-part-4.35854/
    https://forums.hero-academia.com/xfa-blog-entry/doctor-who-eu-misc-feats-and-stuff-part-5.36118/

    (All of the stuff I'm calcing in this thread is from the books I covered in part 5)

    The first feat I'll be calcing is from the novel The Left-Handed Hummingbird, by Kate Orman.

    The ancient mutated Aztec Huitzilin uses an Exillon weapon he found known as the Xiuhcoatl to destroy an army:

    We get a concrete number attached to this later:

    The length of the vaporized forest was never mentioned, but considering it was large enough to hold a widely dispersed/hiding army, I figure treating it as a square would be reasonable. 1 mi^2 = 2.58999 km^2.

    This took place somewhere in northern Mexico. The quote says that the primary area of effect was vaporized down to the rock, and I found this useful map which shows the depth from the top of the soil in various regions of the world. Northern Mexico is mostly orange, which corresponds to 98.917861627 - 110.544688497 cm. I'll take the average and use 104.7312751 cm, for a volume of 2,712,529.552 m^3.

    I can't find the vaporization value for topsoil, so I'll use silicon which should be close enough.

    Density: 2.329 g/cc
    Mass: 6,317,481,327 kg
    Molar mass: 28.085 g/Mol
    Boiling point: 2900 degrees C
    Heat of Fusion: 50.21 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization: 359 kJ/mol
    Specific Heat: 19.789 J/mol K
    Total moles: 2.249414751e11

    Melting energy: 1.129431146e16j
    Vaporization energy: 8.075398955e16j

    Assuming the soil started at room temperature (21 degrees C), it would have to be heated 2879 degrees C (same in Kelvin).

    19.789 * 2.249414751e11 * 2879 = 1.281548516e16j

    However more than just the soil was vaporized. A dense forest, a stream, 400 humans, and presumably many animals also met the same fate. I'm not sure how to account for the stream since its dimensions aren't given, but I can use this to estimate the forest mass. As the forest was dense enough for an army to hide in, using 22.1 kg/m^2 (the same as in one of my earlier calcs) seems reasonable, giving a tree biomass of 57,238,779 kg. As this is conveniently the same area I used in my Kang's ship calc, we can just the same vaporization value I got there: 1.910630443e14j. Now we can take the energy to vaporize a human body (2.9898864e9j), multiply it by 400 to get 1.19595456e12j, and add that to the other values for a grand total of 1.050560452e17j, or 25.10899741 megatons.

    Of course the true capacity of the weapon is far more powerful than this:

    Next we have a feat from the book The Pit, by Neil Penswick, in which a bomb destroys an entire star system.

    Confirmation that it actually happened:

    The destruction was the reason they investigated the system in the first place (traveling back in time to before it happened):

    Now that that's established, let's gather some info about this system:

    The system was known as the Seven Planets because it had, well, 7 planets. 6 inhabited, and one uninhabited:

    This was the planet which the bomb was orbiting when it detonated. There are other quotes strongly suggesting it was the outermost planet of the system, such as this one:

    Another important thing to note is that the system was binary:

    The planet Nicaea is described as basically like Earth in terms of climate and sunlight, and it's implied that the 7th planet isn't as bright, due to being farther away from the suns:

    Nicaea can also be seen from the 7th planet, so it is likely the 6th planet in the system:

    Since it's implied that both suns provide a relatively equal amount of light to both Nicaea and the 7th planet, it's unlikely that either of them is in a noncircumbinary orbit. So both of them probably follow circumbinary orbits. The two suns can't be too close to each other either, or else they would always appear together in the sky, and the fact that the planet only becomes dark 1 out of 7 days due to having two suns contradicts that. Treating the suns as roughly equivalent to our sun, a good low-end is to assume that the distance between the 7th planet and the farthest sun never exceeds the maximum of the solar system's habitable zone, if it were a binary system.

    Unfortunately I can't find any way to determine the minimum distance the two stars would have to be from each other given the information we have, so I'll just use 1 AU based on this:

    Therefore the total diameter of the 7th planet's orbit would be 3.8 AU (2.4 AU - distance to the farthest star, minus 0.5 AU, distance to the center of gravity of both stars, multiplied by 2 = total orbital diameter).

    Let's calculate the energy required to destroy the sun at a distance of 2.4 AU.

    Sun GBE = 6.87e41j.

    Cross-sectional surface area of the sun = 1.520526101e12 km^2
    Surface area of a sphere with radius 2.4 AU: 1.619881224e18 km^2

    Divide that to get 1,065,342.596, then multiply that by the sun's GBE for a yield of 7.318903636e47j, or 7.318903636 KiloFoe.

    Keep in mind that even with weapons like this, the human worlds were in significant danger from the Daleks (who were far below their Time War levels).

    Final Tally

    Huitzilin uses Xiuhcoatl: ~25.11 megatons
    Dragonslayer self-destruct: ~7.319 kiloFoe
  • Endless Mike
    From my Calc request blog.

    1. Iron Man stops bomb (Marvel Comics, requested by Peter Maximoff)

    It's a free online comic so I can link the whole thing:

    http://www.readcomics.tv/iron-man-fatal-frontier/chapter-1/full

    The only quantification we get for how powerful the thing is is that the AI said it could turn the west coast into a crater. This is before Tony scanned it and realized it was actually a bomb, so presumably it could cause this much damage via sheer KE.

    The weapon was targeted on Hollywood, so I figure the minimum this could mean is the entire west coast of California, as opposed to the west coast of the US or North America.

    Measuring the distance from Hollywood to the northernmost point on the Californian coastline:



    1017.98 km

    For a low-end we'll use this as the air blast (widespread destruction) radius on the nuke calculator. That equates to a yield of 3.253 teratons.

    For the high-end, we'll take the crater statement as literal. Using D/4 for the crater's depth would make it 508.99 km deep. Using the dome volume calculator, the volume would be 1,104,733,833.88 km^3. Applying rock fragmentation (8j/cm^3) to that gives us 8.837870671e24j, or 2.112301786 petatons.

    Since this was just the KE of the thing, presumably the payload of the actual warhead was stronger, and Tony tanked that point-blank (although he also absorbed some of it with his armor), but the actual visible explosion didn't really match up to that so I'm a bit hesitant about that part, although the explosion could have been reduced due to the amount of energy his armor absorbed.

    2. Toph holds up library (Avatar the last Airbender, requested by Peter Maximoff)

    Let's get to scaling:



    Apparently the characters don't have official heights, but I found someone who did a pretty good job of measuring them. So Toph's height is 1.13 m. That makes the diameter of the upper part of the spire 6.152222222 m.



    Treating it as a cone (because I'm definitely not scaling each of those chambers individually), height is 204.5093428 m, and base is 218.971798 m, for an approximate volume of 2,567,190.804 m^3. Applying 80% hollowness, we get 513,438.1609 m^3.

    As the architectural style of the library, as noted by the wiki, bears resemblance to that of the Taj Mahal, I figure we can use the same building material - marble. That ranges from 2600 to 2800 kg/m^3, so we'll use 2700, making the total mass 1,386,283,034 kg. Now we need to find the rate at which it was descending.



    Measuring one of the spiral bands around the tower to Toph's height, we can see in this screencap it's ~2.876102695 m above the ground.



    In this screencap, 1 second later (or at least as close as I could time it, as it's not a Youtube video so I couldn't use Rowvid), the same point is ~0.5241495566 m off the ground. This makes our speed ~2.351953138 m/s.

    0.5 * 1,386,283,034 * 2.351953138^2 = 3,834,239,538 joules, or 0.9164052433 tons. As this was a continuously applied force, and she managed to match it for as long as it was applied, I think that means we can multiply this by the number of seconds she held it up. Discounting the few short periods where she failed to hold it, the total duration was 277 seconds, for a total yield of 253.8442524 tons. (Although it was implied that a longer time lapse was involved in the scene of Aang and Sokka in the library but I don't really see a way to account for that, so consider this a low-end)

    3. Yami/Golden Darkness slices planet Kild in two (To-Love-Ru Darkness, requested by KKKoopa)

    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-z8xbnb4MbQk/Uxv8FvKVC3I/AAAAAAABMmw/kljVQDuvihY/s0/022.png

    Assuming the planet has the same size and mass as Earth (if that's not true, forget this, but I'm not about to look this shit up to confirm or deny it), this should be simple. As it says it happened "suddenly", I figure both halves would need to accelerate to at least escape velocity. Therefore for a low-end we can take the Earth's mass and calculate its KE at Earth escape velocity.

    KE = 0.5 * 5.97237e24 * 11,186^2 = 3.736511641e32j, or 89.30477153 zettatons.

    Calcs I didn't do:

    Joa's Satan Hole
    (Toriko, requested by Gordo solos)

    Reason: Can't see a way to get a timeframe based just on the scan he posted

    Yhwach Shadow game with Ichigo and Aizen and Ichigo's speed with the lightning thing in the battle with Candice (Bleach, requested by Divell)

    Reason: Vague descriptions don't cut it. Link me scans, or at least chapter numbers. I'm not about to read through the manga just to find whatever you're talking about.

    Earth-slicing feat (To-Love-Ru Darkness, requested by KKKoopa)

    Reason: He told me what chapter it was in, but he didn't post the scans, saying that posting them would likely get him banned. So considering what kind of manga it is I'm not about to look them up.

    Heatran eruption (Pokemon Generations, requested by Flashlight237)

    Reason: He mentioned Kaiserwombat's Earth Power calc, but in this case it appears as if the magma from the volcano was already very near the surface so the speed/KE probably wouldn't amount to all that much. It's also really hard to scale the volume of magma erupting.
  • Endless Mike
    Using the equation found here, which I believe is more accurate than what I was using before (although see my comments on the linked blog), I'm going to redo some luminosity-based calcs.

    1. Destiny Force lights up space

    M= -26.73 - 2.5log ((L/3.846*10^26)(146000000000/d)^2)

    (Keep in mind this is a base 10 logarithm)

    Using 17,500 lux as I did in the original calc. The conversion factor from lux to apparent magnitude is m = -2.5 log I - 14.2.

    M = -24.8076

    Distance is 2.54 million ly, which equals 2.403e22 m

    Plugging these values into the equation, we get a luminosity of ~1.773581336e48 W.

    Using the same timeframe as the original calc, yield is thus 1.064148802e50j, or 1.064148802 MegaFoe.

    2. Heroes light up Dark Dimension

    17,500 lux again, so apparent magnitude -24.8076

    Distance is 46.5 billion light-years, which equals 4.399e26 m.

    -24.8076 = -26.73 - 2.5log((L/3.846*10^26)(146000000000/(4.339e26))^2)

    Solving for L, we get ~5.782596228e56 W. Using the same timeframe as I originally used, that gives a yield of 5.78259622e57j, or 57.8259622 TeraFoe.

    3. Thor redirects Ultron's energy into space

    Original calc used 66,000 lux. Converting to apparent magnitude gives us -26.2489.

    Distance is 10,994.76579 km.

    -26.2489 = -26.73 - 2.5log((L/3.846*10^26)(146000000000/(10994765.79))^2)

    L = ~1.400346574e18 W. Using the same range I used in the original calc, the yield is from 1.400346574e19j to 8.402079444e19j (3.346908638 - 20.08145183 Gigatons).

    4. Mogo illuminates dying universe

    I originally used 0.00005 lux, but I think that was way too low as that translates into an apparent magnitude that's too low to perceive with the naked eye. So instead I think I'll use the apparent magnitude of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky.

    Distance is 46.5 billion light-years (4.399e26 m)

    -1.47 = -26.73 - 2.5log((L/3.846*10^26)(146000000000/(4.399e26))^2)

    L = ~2.747966869e47 W. Using the timeframe from the original calc, the yield is 9.892680728e51j, or 98.92680728 MegaFoe.
  • Endless Mike
    From my Calc Request Blog.

    1. Wakfu explosion (Wakfu, requested by TTGL)



    I can't calc the power of the explosion since it looks more like a glowing burst of light that progressively envelops the planet than an actual damaging explosion, but calcing the speed of the light tendrils should be doable (assuming the planet has the same dimensions as Earth).

    Here's the frame around where the tendrils reach the PoV:



    Screencap width: 928 px
    Screencap height: 524 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(928/524) = 102.233816070056

    2*atan(41/(928/tan(102.233816070056/2))) = 6.27188392109 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 116,290 km. As the beams move in indirect, curved paths, I figure we can add at least 20% to that, to get 139,548 km.

    According to Rowvid, 8.28 seconds pass between the explosion on the surface and the frame I measured, for a speed of 16,853.62319 km/s (Mach 49,527.23615)

    2. Alcione's magic blast (Magic Knight Rayearth, requested by Imperator100)

    We're going to have to use cloud scaling for this:



    The clouds look closest to cumulus clouds. It says that in arid and mountainous areas, they are usually higher, and mountains can be seen in the background, so I'll average between the values of 2400 and 6100 meters given on the page, to get 4250 meters. This makes the explosion diameter (using a bit of extrapolation) 6617.857143 m. Halving that for the radius and using near-total fatalities on the nuke calculator, I get a yield of roughly 1.7 megatons.

    3. Father explosion (Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood anime, requested by TTGL)

    The maps of Amestris seem unnecessary since we can scale directly from the planet (assuming it's the same size as Earth):



    Chord method:

    R = h/2+c^2/8h

    R = 3797.123415 px

    Earth radius = 6371 km

    The blast encompassed the entire screen from this view, so we can use the chord length as the blast diameter, which would be 1582.838743 km. Halving and using air blast radius (widespread destruction) on the nuke calculator, that equals 1.517 teratons.

    However the blast also did cloud parting. The clouds were parted throughout the entire visible sky, so again we can use 791.4193714 km as the radius. Rowvid says the cloud parting took 0.44 seconds, for a speed of 1798.68039 km/s (Mach 5285.728025).

    Area would be pi * 791.4193714^2, or 1,967,719.661 km^2.

    Most clouds range up to 45,000 feet (13.716 km) for maximum height, so that will be our height. Volume = 26,989,242.87 km^3. Density is tricky as it lowers with altitude, so I'll use this chart and get the geometric mean of all of the density values from 0 - 15 km altitude. I get 0.3090894697 kg/m^3, so our mass is 6.082014266e14 kg.

    0.5 * 6.082014266e14 * 1,798,680.39^2 = 9.83842181e26j, or 235.1439247 petatons. Add that to the other value for a total value of 235.1454417 petatons.

    He also asked me to calc how powerful a punch or stomp from giant Father would be, but that would require me to know his density and as he's effectively made out of alchemy shadow magic or whatever I can't determine that.

    4. Owlman punches Batman (Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, requested by KKKoopa)

    He actually requested two feats, but I couldn't do the first one because we don't get a real view of the crater. The movie was originally intended to be tied in with the DCAU but they eventually scrapped that, however they seem to still use the same character designs, to the figure for DCAU Batman's height (6' 2", or 1.8796 m) should apply.



    Measuring the base from the part that was destroyed

    height: 2.12819698 m
    width: 2.114554687 m

    Modeling it as a cylinder:

    V = pi * 1.057277343^2 * 2.12819698 = 7.473766868 m^3.

    Violent fragmentation (69 j/cm^3) looks right, so yield is 515,689,913.9j (0.1232528475 tons) I could also get KE, but I'm lazy. :catcry

    5. Spirit of Fire escapes exploding shield world (Halo, requested by superidot9000)

    Here's the frame right after the ship reaches the PoV:



    Width: 926 px
    Height: 397 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(926/397) = 117.04308253062

    2*atan(291/(926/tan(117.04308253062/2))) = 54.338357102908 degrees

    According to the wiki, this thing is ~2900 km in diameter.

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 2825.1 km. The ship flew in a curved path so let's add 20% to that, to get 3390.12 km.

    According to Rowvid, the trip takes 3.72 seconds, for a speed of 911.3225806 km/s (Mach 2678.07629)

    6. Mogo illuminates dying universe (DC Comics, requested by XImpossibruX)

    Assuming that this universe is the size of the RL observable universe, Mogo's light was seen at the very farthest reaches of it:

    http://i1151.photobucket.com/albums/o632/luckycandy69/Light across the whole universe.jpg
    http://i1151.photobucket.com/albums/o632/luckycandy69/Light across the whole universe1.jpg
    http://i1151.photobucket.com/albums/o632/luckycandy69/Light across the whole universe4.jpg

    Surface area would thus be the surface area of a sphere with a diameter of 93 billion light-years.

    4 * pi * 46.5^2 = 27,171.63486 billion light-years^2 = 2.432133036e49 cm^2

    As Mogo's light appeared as a very bright star in an otherwise starless sky, I figure I can use half of the lux figure for starlight here: 0.00005 lux.

    That equates to 7.3e-12 W/cm^2, or 1.775457116e38 Watts. Mogo was able to keep this up long enough for GLs to travel from the far reaches of the universe to him. Even though this is New 52, the GL stuff didn't change all that much in the reboot, so I figure I can use the figure of 10 hours to cross the radius of the universe. That would make the total yield 6.391645618e42j, or 1.527639966 tenakilotons.


    This calc is obsolete, see here for the updated version

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    - Owlman punches Batman (Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths): ~0.1233 tons
    - Alcione's magic blast (Magic Knight Rayearth): 1.7 megatons
    - Father's explosion (Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood anime): ~235.16 petatons
    - Mogo illuminates dying universe (DC Comics New 52): ~1.5276 tenakilotons

    Speed:

    - Spirit of Fire escapes collapsing Shield World (Halo): ~Mach 2678.08
    - Light tendrils (Wakfu): ~Mach 49,527.24

    Calcs I didn't do:

    Auri-El explosion (The Elder Scrolls, requested by TTGL)

    Reason: I can't really figure out how to scale the place or get its volume (the images he sent me didn't exactly help as there was no common reference point between them that I could see)

    Noon and Dusk shake veranda (Mister Monday, requested by TTGL)

    Reason: No information is given on the distance the impact was from the veranda, also I'm really not sure about calcing the shaking of a free-standing structure like that instead of the ground for which you can use an earthquake calculator.

    Mjolnir swing speed (Marvel Comics, requested by Deiweth)

    Reason: At first I thought I could use the speed for the hammer I'd calculated before and just use a ratio for the hammer's distance from Thor compared to his arm length, but then I realized that it could easily have shown the hammer after it moved a distance after Thor stopped swinging his arm, so there's no real way to determine the swing speed.

    Beast Boy survives explosion (DC Comics, requested by XImpossibruX)

    Reason: It's too small to use the nuke calculator on and I forgot the formula to generalize it to smaller explosions. Probably wouldn't yield anything significant anyway.

    Batman dodges lightning (DC Comics, requested by XImpossibruX)

    Reason: It doesn't show the lightning in flight before it hits the ground, so it can't be proven to be legit dodging

    Jon Lane vs. Raven (DC Comics, requested by King Kiba)

    He says he's throwing a whole mountain, but all I see in the scan are small rocks, and in the first page, the 'mountain' looks pretty small as well, so I don't really see the point.

    Jon Lane reacts to lasers (DC Comics, requested by King Kiba)

    Reason: I don't see any evidence in the scans he posted that they are legit lightspeed lasers

    Kid Flash outruns explosion and moves crates (DC Comics, requested by King Kiba)

    Reason: The scans provided give no way to determine the distance, how many objects were in the crates that needed to be moved, or what the explosive was to get a detonation velocity

    Barry laps Central City (The Flash TV show, requested by Sloth)

    Reason: As this is a fictional city, there's nothing I can really scale his path from. I was originally thinking of using the width of the bridges but I realized I don't know how many lanes they have which would be a major variable.

    Vlitra emerges from planet (Asura's Wrath, requested by hardboned)

    Reason: I can't find a way to scale the entire volume of the planet that was fragmented/moved, and I fear any attempt I make would be a major lowball

    Jason X tanks spaceship explosion (Friday the 13th, requested by Hunterzillas)

    Reason: Can't see a way to scale it (and I'm not downloading the whole movie to do so) and even if I could, calcing explosions like that in space is pretty difficult.

    Halo energy speed (Halo, requested by superidot9000)

    Reason: The distance from the galactic center is given but not the direction, so the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud is unknown. Also I recall reading that the Halo effect actually propagates nonlinearly through time (even hitting things before it is activated in some cases) so the speed can't really be calced.

    Tanaka smashes rock (Halo, requested by superidot9000)

    Reason: Can't find a good way to scale it

    FTL drive detonation (Halo, requested by superidot9000)

    As this wasn't a real planet but rather an artificial structure, I'm not sure how to calc it.

    Team Fortress 2 calcs (Team Fortress 2, requested by Asdtgh)

    Reason: He gave me calcs, not calc requests. Although his actual calcs seemed to make a lot of assumptions.
  • Endless Mike
    From my Calc Request Blog.

    1. Saturday's Lightning Bolt (Keys to the Kingdom, requested by TTGL)

    According to the quotes he gave me, the power of the lightning multiplied exponentially with each sorcerer it was sent to before recombining:

    On the surface, it looks like we can simply take the energy in an average lightning bolt (1 gigajoule) and multiply it by 6403 (the # of sorcerers plus Saturday, Noon, and Dusk), to get 6.403 terajoules, or 1.530353728 kilotons.

    However, I have several caveats about this. First of all, it's not stated in the quotes that every single one of those sorcerers was there (since 3600 of them work in shifts, it could mean there were thousands fewer than the total). Second of all, this assumes that the original lightning bolt is comparable in power to a RL one, and each split creates another bolt that is just as powerful. As all it said is that the final combined bolt is > than any natural lightning bolt, this is not necessarily true (for all I know, the original one could start at around a few hundred kilojoules only and the final product could only be ~2 gigajoules). Since I am unfamiliar with the setting I will let TTGL address these concerns.

    2. Sugilite's footsteps (Steven Universe, requested by TTGL)

    This is annoying considering I know practically nothing about this show, but Totally not a cat scaled some character heights here. Notably, Pearl is 1.7 m tall.

    Sugilite's height apparently varies from episode to episode, so to get her height in this particular episode, we can scale from a screencap of the video link TTGL gave me.



    Sugilite height: 5.791621689 m

    Now for distance:



    Panel width: 768 px

    Panel height: 432 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(768/432) = 102.447857778012

    2*atan(26/(768/tan(102.447857778012/2))) = 4.826275535956

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 68.715 m.

    The effects best correspond to V-VI on the Mercalli Scale.

    The impact effect simulator wouldn't cooperate to find a corresponding seismic effect for such a short range, however I think I have a workaround. First I multiplied the range by 10 (to 687.15 m) and found a workable set of parameters.

    Total energy of this is 1.22e16j. Since we're looking for something that does the same amount of damage at 0.1 times the distance, we can divide it by 100 due to the inverse-square law, getting 1.22e14j. Then divide that by 10,000 to get the seismic energy: 1.22e10j, or 2.915869981 tons.

    3. Superboy TK's bullets (DC New 52, requested by King Kiba)

    A modern US police car is 78.2 inches (1.98628 m) wide.



    Panel width: 893px

    Panel height: 244 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(893/244) = 137.366368331864

    2*atan(214.2195136/(893/tan(137.366368331864/2))) = 63.16194248007 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 1.6155 m, which seems oddly short but whatever (hopefully the PoV being behind where the bullets stopped will compensate for that, somewhat).

    Now despite what King Kiba said, the gun in the scan is clearly a revolver. Thus the gun it best matches I think would be the S&W Model 19, which is still occasionally used by modern American police.

    I'm having some trouble finding a muzzle velocity but I did find this blog, which gives values from 1410 - 1485 fps, so I'll average them to 1447.5 fps (441.198 m/s). Thus Superboy reacted in 0.0036616213 seconds, which equates to reacting to an attack from 1 meter away moving at 273.103065 m/s.

    Final Tally

    Energy:

    Sugilite's footsteps: ~2.92 tons/step
    Saturday's lightning bolt: ~1.53 kilotons (I have some reservations about this one though, see above)

    Speed:

    Superboy reacts to bullets: ~273.1 m/s (reaction speed adjusted for an attack from 1 meter away)

    Calcs I didn't do:

    Giant club knocks elf a league away (The Elder Scrolls, requested by TTGL)

    Reason: There's no information on the angle at which he was launched, which would be necessary to determine the speed and KE.

    Superman does... something (DC, art looks Pre-Crisis, requested by Deiweth)

    Reason: I'm not sure what he's asking me to calc here. He said it's a speed feat, but I don't see one in the page:

    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-B4P5kM0C5IQ/Vqlq9NRwtSI/AAAAAAAADYo/rr_B3dN8cms/s16000-Ic42/RCO035.jpg

    Blue Shell
    (Mario Kart, requested by Flashlight237)

    Reason: Not sure if anything can be easily quantified here, it just seems to create a blue dome of light that knocks the racers around but trying to get the mass, speed, and KE of them across all of those clips would be a nightmare.
  • Endless Mike
    So I've been watching some Super Sentai recently (because why not) and I noticed this feat from the Goseiger vs. Shinkenger movie.

    Basically, the villain wants to open a portal to the Gosei World dimension, which normally only happens once every 200 years when solar flares are at their maximum:



    But since that isn't currently happening, he decides to use the brainwashed ShinkenRed's power as a substitute for the solar flares:



    And it works:



    There is also a water lens involved, but as lenses don't increase energy but merely focus it (which seemed to be what was happening here too) I figure it's not relevant.

    Now Wikipedia says a solar flare can release up to 6e25j of energy (and considering this particular event happens once every 200 years, longer than we've been monitoring solar flare activity, that seems like a low-end). But how much of this actually hits the Earth?

    I think it's fair to compare it to the 1859 Carrington event, one of the largest solar flares on record. We can calc the KE of the CME that hit Earth, as the speed is given in the article (150 million km in 17.6 hours, or 2367.424242 km/s).

    I can't find any info on the mass of that particular CME, but Wiki gives the average mass of one as 1.6e12 kg (although they admit this is a huge low-end, and it's even more so since we're dealing with a super flare here, and this doesn't take into account the radiation that precedes the CME). Anyway, calcing for KE we get 4.483758035e24j (1.07164389 petatons). I suppose we can use this as a low-end and 6e25j (14.34034417 petatons) as a high-end, giving us our range.

    GoseiRed was able to tank this, although he was injured and needed to recuperate afterwards. This probably also scales to various other rangers and monsters.

    ShinkenRed's Rekka Daizantou: 1.07 - 14.34 petatons
  • Endless Mike
    If you're trying to calc a feat of someone dodging shit:



    Lately I've seen people failing to grasp this simple concept.
  • Endless Mike
    From my Calc Request Thread.

    1. Taskmaster dodges bullet (Marvel Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    http://i.imgur.com/3rwHJQJ.jpg

    I haven't actually read this particular comic, so I might be getting something wrong here. Please point it out if I am.

    The scene in the 6th panel can be attributed to aimdodging, or just moving so erratically that the shooter misses. In the second panel, though, he clearly jumps out of the way of the bullet, looking to have done so while it's still in flight.

    Scaling (assuming the bullet was aimed roughly at his center of mass):



    The scan isn't detailed enough to try to determine the precise type of gun used. So I'll use the info I found here, saying that typical handgun muzzle velocities range from 750 - 1300 fps (228.6 - 396.24 m/s).

    He traveled 2.937231141 times the distance the bullet did in the same timeframe, making his speed 671.4510388 - 1163.848467 m/s (Mach 1.973172996 - 3.420166526).

    #2. Taskmaster catches bullet (Marvel Comics, requested by Mr. Black Leg)

    http://i.imgur.com/sCcAIsf.jpg

    Again, I haven't read the comic, but a bit of research told me this woman was most likely Sunset Bain, who has an official height of 5' 6" (1.6764 m). As she isn't drawn in a larger-than-life, superhero style, but does look 'noble and graceful', I suppose we can use 8 heads, making her head height 0.20955 m.



    Panel width: 606 px

    Panel height (approximating the average): 278 px

    Angsizing:

    2*atan(tan(70/2)*(606/278) = 113.537813175826

    2*atan(21.33755833/(606/tan(113.537813175826/2))) = 6.152643092368 degrees

    Angsize calculator gives a distance of 1.9495 m.

    Taking into account the length of her arm and the barrel (see the wiki article on the gun below), we can subtract 29.9 in (0.75946 m) to get 1.19001 m. As Taskmaster is himself a short distance from the PoV (although I can't really scale it exactly), subtracting a bit more to get an even 1 m should be okay.

    The gun visually best matches a Beretta semi-automatic pistol, closest to a Beretta M9 as far as I can tell. Muzzle velocity is 381 m/s. His hand was already in position to catch the bullet when it was fired, so we can't measure the distance it moved, but we can do reaction time, which comes to 0.0026246719 s. Obviously that's reacting to a projectile moving at 381 m/s (Mach 1.119633254) from 1 m away.

    3. Oss? raises Numenor (The Silmarillion, requested by TTGL)

    The map he gave me was way too small to work with, although I found better ones. But since I'm too lazy to scale it, I'll trust this guy who says that according to The Atlas of Middle-Earth, Numenor's area is 167,961 mi^2 (435016.993 km^2). (If that turns out to be wrong, blame him, not me).

    I can find no information on Numenor's average elevation, but considering it has many mountains and is a large island with an exceedingly large mountain in the middle (Meneltarma), I figure I can compare it to New Guinea, which has the tallest island peak in the world (this is admittedly a shot in the dark but I have nothing better).

    Average elevation of New Guinea: 667 m above sea level.

    As the quote says that Numenor was "raised... out of the depths of the Great Water" I think it's fair to use the average depth of the Atlantic Ocean (where it would have existed going by modern maps).

    3339 + 667 = 4006 meters.

    Volume: 1,742,678.074 km^3.

    Using the density of oceanic crust, 2.9 g/cm^3 (as it came from the bottom of the ocean), the mass is 5.053766414e18 kg.

    Assuming the center of mass is half the distance it was raised, we can solve for GPE:

    5.053766414e18 * 9.81 * 2003 = 9.93036294e22j, or 23.73413705 teratons. I suppose that's a top-tier Maia for you.

    Final Tally:

    Energy:

    - Oss? raises Numenor: ~23.73 teratons

    Speed:

    - Taskmaster catches bullet: ~Mach 1.12
    - Taskmaster dodges bullet: ~Mach 1.97 - 3.42

    Calcs I didn't do:

    Hyde bullet-timing (Jekyll and Hyde, requested by Savan)

    Reason: I couldn't find an effective timeframe as I wasn't able to measure the distance any of the bullets crossed. At one point it looked like they were moving but the perspective was changing throughout the shot so I couldn't measure it, and in all of the other shots they appeared to be completely still, as if time was frozen.

    Superman vs. Darkseid (Post-Crisis DC Comics, requested by Deiwith)

    Reason: He seemed to want me to calc the part where the woman said it "rocked our entire star system", but that looks like hyperbole with nothing to back it up. I suppose I could do angsizing to get how close he took him to the sun, but there's no timeframe other than their conversation which could have parts missing and is usually an iffy way to determine time anyway.

    Batman tanks explosion (DC Comics New 52, requested by Imperator100)

    Reason: I was originally considering measuring the diameter of the blast and using the scaled down widespread destruction formula on the nuke calculator, but in the panels afterwards it looks like the room he's in and many of its contents are still intact (including rather fragile wooden objects) so I think this is a case of the visible blast exaggerating the actual damage done, and I have no way to calc the actual damage.

    Takubar cold (The Elder Scrolls, requested by TTGL)

    Reason: The description doesn't match up with any physics I know of, so quantifying it seems problematic. He did ask me about atomization of bedrock though, and I figure the value here (30,852.2j/cm^3) would work for that.
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