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Viewing blog entries in category: Toho Studios

  • KaiserWombat
    We've reached it, folks.

    The summit of the Toho compendium.

    It was a hell of a (lazy) climb up the sheer cliffs of relentless daikaiju number-crunching.

    But I've accomplished the goal I had set out to achieve way back in the summer of 2013.

    I hope this has provided much amusement, merriment, curiousity, satisfaction and, most of all, just a nice slice of notability and interest for the OBD audience in viewing a franchise that I have such personal love and investment in watching, with both the perilous peaks and the (many, many, many) vast valleys that accompany each and every single feature, for an analytical, competitive and an audio-visual experience.

    This is it...

    ...at least until I bother my backside to complete the multitude of holes left wide open in my chronology :lmao


    9# - Projectile Stats (Monster X Meteor)

    A continuation of the last calc sub-heading from Part 3 of the G:FW entry series.

    Cratering Energy

    (Source for FW Godzilla's height)

    I'm assuming that the crater depth is equal to FW Godzilla's height: notably, even while far closer to the PoV in the middle-ground of the image compared to the crater wall in the background, Goji is still only about equal in apparent height by comparison. I think it's a fair low-end estimate to make on this.

    Speaking of low-ends, since we cannot conclusively scale the length/vertical width of the impact crater directly, I've decided to provide two possible measurements for this specific dimension.

    1) That the crater vertical width is one-half the size of the diameter (low-end)

    2) That the crater vertical width is equivalent in size of the diameter (high-end)


    1163.63/2 = 581.815 metres is the full vertical width.

    Treating the crater volume as an ellipsoid.

    V should roughly = 35,359,926.20 m^3

    For energy per cubic metre value, I'm going to stick with trusty ole Sedan Crater and the derived 69 J/cm^3, though I am aware that there are also asteroid impact-relevant energy values available, so this may be treated as a placeholder value for now.

    35,359,926.20*1,000,000*69 = 2.439834908e+15 joules or 583.13 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    V should roughly = 141,439,704.80 m^3

    141,439,704.80*1,000,000*69 = 9.759339631e+15 joules or 2.33 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Merely a fraction of the total energy output generated by the descending 'bollide', the vast majority of it was already effectively useless in dealing any harm to FW Godzilla.

    10# - Energy Output (Hyper Spiral Ray)

    There have been a couple attempts at obtaining a comprehensive energy value from this undeniably impressive feat, so I'm merely the latest in a line of prospects throwing his hat into the ring on this feat.

    Kinetic Energy

    The beam propels the vast majority of Ghidorah's mass up to at least hundreds of kilometres above sea level while intact, in the timespan of several seconds.

    1:54:35 - The Atomic Breath transforms into the HSR and is fired off by Godzilla.
    1:54:40 - Keizer Ghidorah's body finally breaks to the strain of the energy and is engulfed in a thermonuclear explosion.


    (Source for Hokkaido vertical length is a previous Pokemon-related calc of my own)

    I edited + capped a Google Earth reference picture to indicate the rough geographical area I believe is being represented in the second image within the spoiler, as I feel that the combination of cloud cover and the difficult-to-perceive-detail perspective of the Earth's surface makes it tough to discern without some visual guideline.

    Anyway, onwards to the angsize aspect of the equation.

    Angsize calculator

    Ang: 23.273978226678 degrees
    PoV Distance: 1271.90 kilometres

    Major Assumption #1: I will be treating the nexus (centre) of the thermonuclear fireball as being directly parallel in altitude to the PoV, which I do not believe to be a wholly unreasonable stretch.

    The timeframe is already known to be 5 seconds (there isn't anything to suggest that the charred remains of Ghidorah ascended any further following 1:54:40).

    1271.90/5 = 254.38 km/s (Mach 747.57)
    254.38 km/s = 254,380 m/s

    Major Assumption #2: That the overwhelmingly majority (with the exemption of two destroyed heads) of Keizer Ghidorah's biomass remained intact upon the moment of explosive impact.

    Keizer Ghidorah's mass is 100,000 metric tons (I can subtract an ultimately minor and arbitrary amount from the total weight to factor out the two heads, but I'm sticking with this for now.)

    100,000 metric tons = 100,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*100,000,000*254,380*254,380 = 3.23545922e+18 joules or 773.29 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Thermonuclear Energy

    This feat is only half-complete at this stage, however.

    Most (if not all) of the posters I've seen attempt to tackle this very troublesome destructive feat usually stick purely with the KE element of the HSR pushing Ghidorah's corpse hundreds+ of kilometres into the air, establish a final energy output result and conclude thusly.

    However, I felt very ambitious specifically about this and was determined to attempt a thoroughly conclusive analysis of the feat, and so have endeavoured to determine a potential result from the fireball itself.

    At first, like I imagine the vast majority of my peers, I was completely at odds as to how I could possibly extrapolate a measurement of the thermonuclear fireball, even though I had all the visual info available: no indicators of the actual distance between the PoV and the fireball are present, and there's no component from the fireball itself to give even a rough determination of size.

    However, I decided to change the approach to determining the fireball's size via direct scaling, and happened upon a potential goldmine discovery (though IIRC, EM has used this previously as a source): the propagation speed of a thermonuclear fireball, namely that it can reach a fiery diameter of 20 metres in the span of 1 millisecond (0.001 seconds), or a velocity of 10,000 m/s assuming uniform radius dispersion rate.

    Of course, this is definitely a tentative method of extrapolation, especially considering that I've not factored in potential big-time issues such as fireball altitude or atmospheric content density, but this is still the best approach I have got.

    Now, we need to determine the duration from initial expansion of the fireball to the attainment of the explosion's "complete" size. Fortunately, I have that available in the film:

    1:54:40 - Initial stage of the explosion.
    1:54:46 - Final stage of the explosion.

    6 whole seconds for expansion: excellent~!

    Major Assumption #3: Given that the fireball completely consumes the full body length of Keizer Ghidorah immediately, I'll be assuming that the initial radius of the thermonuclear fireball will be 75 metres, half of KG's body length/height.

    With the propagation velocity applied, this would mean the final radius of the fireball is approximately 60,075 metres.

    Final step is to quantify energy yield from the fireball size, which I'll accomplish with SD.net's nuke calculator: the lowest value I could obtain with the minimum fireball radius tab that matches precisely my calc'd radius was 277,440 megatons or 277.44 gigatons of TNT equivalent.

    Total Energy Sum

    277.44 + 0.77329 = 278.21 gigatons of TNT equivalent in total.


    Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) - Part 4
    Energy Output (Monster X Meteor, Cratering)*: 583.13 kilotons [low-end] - 2.33 megatons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Hyper Spiral Ray, Kinetic + Thermonuclear): 278.21 gigatons of TNT equivalent.

    * = Also applies to the destructive power and durability of FW Godzilla, Monster X, Keizer Ghidorah and arguably FW Gigan (the sole other daikaiju to remotely obstruct and potentially harm pre-Keizer Goji) and Imago Mothra (who basically fought Gigan to a stalemate and later murder-suicide).


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25177
    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25181
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25183
  • KaiserWombat
    Part Trois, ready to go.


    6# - Kinetic Energy (Atomic Breath)



    (Source for FW Hedorah's height)

    Angsize, once again.

    Ang: 4.422685421048 degrees
    PoV Distance: 1553.80 metres

    (note that PoV distance is actually a low-end; Hedorah is actually on the descent at this stage, but it's the first visible shot we get)

    It took 3 seconds from initial AB surface break to Hedorah's on-screen appearance.

    1553.80/3 = 517.93 m/s is Hedorah's velocity.

    Final Wars Hedorah's mass is 70,000 metric tons.
    70,000 metric tons = 70,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*70,000,000*517.93*517.93 = 9.388801971e+12 joules or 2.24 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    (Source for FW Ebirah's body length)

    Moar angsize, babeh!

    Ang: 21.143673198324 degrees
    PoV Distance: 267.90 metres

    (again, low-end distance, Ebirah descending from highest altitude)

    Duration this time is merely 1 second, therefore rendering Ebirah's velocity as 267.90 m/s at minimum.

    Final Wars Ebirah's mass is 50,000 metric tons.
    50,000 metric tons = 50,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*50,000,000*267.90*267.90 = 1.79426025e+12 joules or 428.84 tons of TNT equivalent.

    There are at least two additional elements to AB usage by Godzilla specifically in regards to the Hedorah/Ebirah sequence, involving seawater vapourisation and KE momentum of both daikaiju and a similarly-sized skyscraper all at once, but unfortunately, visual cues for an accurate estimation of distance traveled on both aspects are virtually nil.

    7# - Beam Speed (Airship Weaponry)

    Both the X-ian gunships and the Gotengo display beam propagation of their gun turrets consistently within a short number of frames.

    X-ian Small Fighters


    (Source for FW Gotengo body length)

    Feat occurs in 1 frame, as mentioned in the second spoilered image.

    As referenced previously, this film was made at 24 FPS.

    1/24 = 0.04 seconds

    61.27/0.04 = 1531.75 m/s (Mach 4.50)

    Very low-end estimate for beam velocity, btw, given that I established in the G:FW Part 2 entry that the probable range of speed for the gunships themselves in-atmosphere is mostly likely at the double digit - triple digit Mach boundary.


    Feat #1

    2/24 = 0.08 seconds

    74.59/0.08 = 932.375 m/s (Mach 2.74)

    Feats #2 & #3

    Blue Line

    103.90/0.08 = 1298.75 m/s (Mach 3.82)

    Orange Line

    4/24 = 0.17 seconds

    163.84/0.17 = 963.76 m/s (Mach 2.83)

    The same deal applies as the X-ian beam weapons in terms of extremely conservative velocity figures, given that the Gotengo's weapons propagated exactly the same as their enemies'.

    8# - Beam Speed (Atomic Breath)

    Now, we're hitting the water spring of the well of feats obtainable from this film.

    Both low-end and high-end assumptions will be supplied for this calc.


    The LE of the feat actually relies on certain distance markers from the calculation immediately following this one, namely that the meteor begins its calculable descent sequence at a measured altitude of 1864.70 km.

    What makes this figure crucial, is that the AB directly connects with the Monster X meteor several seconds prior to reaching the start of the calculated descent, meaning that at bare minimum, the meteor's altitude at the moment the AB strucck was at least 1864+ kilometres above sea level.

    1:28:48 - Godzilla initially fires the AB at ground level.
    1:28:50 - The AB has passed Earth's outer atmosphere (and the 1864+ km marking point).

    Therefore, the feat duration was 2 seconds.

    1864.70/2 = 932.55 km/s (Mach 2740.56)


    The ceiling for the beam speed is a little less simplistic, and draws upon directly scaling from the visual given at 1:28:50 filmtime.

    This interpretation relies heavily on the notion that the PoV section of Earth is not noticeably distorted and/or skewed so that the given layout remains uniformly within the 'circle' indicated by the visible curvature, and more importantly, that Japan's geographical position is on the very opposite 'curve' within this hypothetical 2-D shape to the visible slice, along with the AB originating from that particular angle and precise location.

    Quite a few assumptions, all in all.

    Anyway, feat timespan remains the same as the low-end.

    14,519.50/2 = 7259.75 km/s (Mach 21,334.78 | 0.0242 c | 2.42% the speed of light)

    I'd recommend mostly to stick with the LE value, at least until I can potentially justify usage of the HE more favourably.

    Naturally scales with the beam speeds of both Monster X (who largely equalled 'base' FW Godzilla in combat) and Keizer Ghidorah (who casually overwhelmed 'base' FW Godzilla with practically zero difficulty).

    9# - Projectile Stats (Monster X Meteor)



    (Source for Hokkaido vertical length is a previous Pokemon-related calc of my own)

    Angsize is necessary for determining the travel distance.

    Angsize calculator

    Image #1

    Ang: 13.942911505704 degrees
    PoV Distance: 1864.70 kilometres

    However, one also has to factor in that more than half of the meteor's own length is itself ahead of the PoV: while it wouldn't ultimately distort the final result remotely dramatically, it would not be particularly dignified of me to simply ignore the fact, so I'll be generous and assume that:

    1) The meteor's diameter is = in size to the total height of Monster X, which is 120 metres.

    2) That the total diameter is actually ahead of the PoV rather than just a majority of the length; this is more out of convenience for myself.

    1864.70 - 0.120 = 1864.58 km

    Image #2

    Ang: 21.143673198324 degrees
    PoV Distance: 1221.70 kilometres

    1221.70 - 0.120 = 1221.58 km.

    1864.58 - 1221.58 = 643 kilometres is the travel distance of the meteor between Images #1 and #2.

    Feat timespan is 17 frames.
    17/24 = 0.71 seconds.

    643/0.71 = 905.63 km/s (Mach 2661.44)

    Really doesn't need to scale to anything other than the meteor itself, given that there's nothing to validate assigning such speeds to Monster X or Keizer Ghidorah themselves once in-atmosphere, and the fact that beam speeds themselves derive from an even faster calculation.

    Kinetic Energy

    With the projectile velocity provided, we can now discern the KE output of this meteor with full momentum.

    For mass, I'll once again substitute the given value of daikaiju Monster X (60,000 metric tons) for the unknown weight of its meteorite form.

    60,000 metric tons = 60,000,000 kg
    905.63 km/s = 905,630 m/s

    KE: (0.5)*60,000,000*905,630*905,630 = 2.460497091e+19 joules or 5.88 gigatons of TNT equivalent.

    Godzilla withstood the full magnitude of this collision at point-blank range, with nary a scratch on its scaly hide or a shift in its standing posture for all its troubles. Meanwhile, Monster X can actually cause Godzilla to receive at least superficial pain and knock the beast around, while Keizer Ghidorah can actually pierce directly through Goji's skin with its fangs like a knife through hot butter.


    It appears that I was correct in my original prognosis of this particular film breaking through my previous record of three consecutive entries detailing a single source material, because now I'll require an unprecedented fourth entry to conclude this! What a pesky movie to cover...


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25177
    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25181
    Part #4: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25187
  • KaiserWombat
    Continuation of the FW entry.


    2# - Flight Speed (Rodan)

    Quite a few feats to cover in this section, as Rodan is one of the few showcased daikaiju to really get to strut its stuff.

    Feat #1

    In its debut appearance, Rodan roars past a UN charter plane carrying the newly elected Secretary-General, Japanese national Naotaro Daigo, its sonicboom 'wake' destroying the plane in the process.

    I'll be presenting two different methods on calculating the velocity of Rodan in this sequence.

    Method #1

    (for Method #1, focus only on the lilac and grey font; meant to read 11 frames in lilac writing)

    This is the straightforward and direct scaling approach, using the number of frames it takes Rodan to travel the horizontal distance.

    The film is in 24 FPS.

    11/24 = 0.46 seconds

    244.24/0.46 = 530.96 m/s (Mach 1.56)

    Like I said, straightforward and direct.

    Method #2

    The second approach is a little more elaborate; instead of using frame-by-frame analysis of Rodan itself, I propose scaling the distance traveled by the charter plane (with a RL velocity) between the start and finish of the sequence, to determine a 'new' timespan by which to extrapolate Rodan's aerial speed.

    This is where the dark green font in the spoilered image above becomes relevant.

    Picture comparison of cloud position between sequence start and end.

    I'm no expert on airplanes, but the UN doesn't get provided custom models for charter flights, and it appears to mostly resemble a 747-400, so that's the type I'll go with. The 747-400 has a cruising velocity of Mach 0.85 (289.24 m/s)

    59.15/289.24 = 0.2045014520813166 seconds is the new timespan.

    Now, Rodan travels 244.24 metres in the exact same sequence that the 747-400 crosses 59.15, so therefore I'll apply the new timeframe to Rodan's distance.

    244.24/0.2045014520813166 = 1194.32 m/s (Mach 3.51)

    A much more suspectible calc with plenty more potential for patchwork assumptions in play.

    Feat #2

    Squaring off against the EDF's aerial battleship Rumbling in the ruined New York City, Rodan demonstrates another burst of speed as it flies from over the Rumbling in the span of a couple frames.


    (Sources for FW Rodan wingspan and Rumbling height)

    Angsize to be deployed en masse~!

    Image #1

    Angsize calculator

    Angsize: 115.020927962452 degrees
    PoV Distance: 63.68 metres*

    Image #2

    Ang: 26.787902952798 degrees
    PoV Distance: 62.99 metres*

    Image #3

    Ang: 48.503240721718 degrees
    PoV Distance: 33.30 metres*

    Image #4

    Ang: 28.872326038864 degrees
    PoV Distance: 38.21 metres*

    * = Yes, somehow the smaller-sized object in the background manages to be closer to the PoV than the expansive mass in the immediate foreground. Don't ask me how the hell I accomplished that; I'll be focusing on the Rumbling-derived distances due to it being the object traversed.

    62.99 + 33.30 = 96.29 metres is travelled by Rodan, roughly.

    Timespan is 5 frames.

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds

    96.29/0.21 = 458.52 m/s (Mach 1.35)

    Not really all that impressive, plus the angsize snarl might not make my methodology even all that accurate in regards to this feat.

    All speed displays by FW Rodan can probably be scaled to FW Kamacuras, Mothra in Imago stage and Gigan in flight, as well as the physical reflexes of FW Godzilla (capable of casually intercepting both Kamacuras and Rodan in mid-air) and Monster X/Keizer Ghidorah (the only daikaiju in the entire film to actually trouble Godzilla in combat).

    3# - Flight Speed (Kamacuras)

    Since I never bothered to cover Son of Godzilla due to lack of relatively quantifiable feats, this is actually the compendium debut of Kamacuras!

    Simple enough premise here.

    (Source for FW Kamacuras' body length)

    18/24 = 0.75 seconds

    523.64/0.75 = 698.19 m/s (Mach 2.05)

    As mentioned above; this can probably be scalable to FW Rodan in flight.

    4# - Flight Speed (X-ian Small Fighter)

    The seemingly random spree of attacks on global urban centres by daikaiju is quickly followed by Earth's introduction to an extraterrestrial civilisation: the Millennium era's rendition of the Xilians, referred to as the 'X-ians' in FW. Much like in the Showa film which debuted their predecessors, the X-ians' seemingly noble intentions are revealed to be covering up a much more sinister agenda, namely the enslavement of the human population for sustenance. With this reveal, the X-ian Controller kills his former superior and decides to drop the pretense altogether, unleashing squadrons of UFO fighters to further disable already crippled major cities.

    We get to see a display of these fighter craft in atmospheric flight when three vessels appear to travel from downtown Tokyo (the region of heat and smoke in the first link below) all the way to the foothills of Mt. Fuji in the span of seconds.

    59:26 - Silhouette of X-ian gunship can be barely discerned, the seperate black smudge immediately right of the left-most smoke column in the middle of the background.
    59:29 - The same X-ian gunship is now directly overhead of the characters in the foreground.

    The rough distance between Mt. Fuji and the centre of Tokyo is 104.76 km, as the crow flies.

    104.76/3 = 34.92 km/s (Mach 102.62)

    I doubt pretty much any of the other aerial vessels from either the Earth Defense Force or the X-ian invasion fleet can match the sheer velocity of these small gunships, but the various beam weaponry should propagate at least at these speeds, given their consistent ability to tag these UFOs.

    5# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Kumonga Toss)

    A fairly well-known feat in vs sections, and one of the many impressive showings of Final Wars Godzilla in the film, is the titular daikaiju's casual overpowerment of its arachnid antagonist and subsequently using its webbing as a improvised swing to toss the poor fucker near the horizon.

    Let's finally stamp an energy output to this bad boy!

    (Source for FW Kumonga's body length)

    Angsize is necessary for determining distance here.

    Ang: 1.47487946253 degrees
    PoV Distance: 2330.70 metres

    1:14:17 - Godzilla initially releases the silk rope and Kumonga from its grip.
    1:14:19 - Kumonga is at its further distance away from the PoV.

    Timeframe is therefore 2 seconds.
    2330.70/2 = 1165.35 m/s is Kumonga's velocity.

    Final Wars Kumonga's mass is 30,000 metric tons.
    30,000 metric tons = 30,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*30,000,000*1165.35*1165.35 = 2.037060934e+13 joules or 4.87 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    A personal disappointment at the time I first determined the result, given I had sky-high expectations due to the short timeframe and the enormous distance traversed, but oh well: it still exceeds any physical strength display from outside of 91-95 Heisei Godzilla by a significant margin, IIRC.


    Once again, I bite the wordcount dust~

    Until next time!

    Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) - Part 2
    Speed (FW Rodan, Flight)*: Mach 1.35 [low-end] - Mach 3.51 [high-end]
    Speed (FW Kamacuras, Flight)**: Mach 2.05
    Speed (X-ian Small Fighters, Flight): Mach 102.62
    Energy Output (FW Godzilla, Physical Kinetic)***: 4.87 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    * = Also applies to the flight speed of Final Wars Kamacuras, Imago Mothra and Gigan and the physical reflex speed of Final Wars Godzilla and Monster X/Keizer Ghidorah; high-end estimate's result relies upon very disputable groundwork.
    ** = Also applies to the flight speed of Final Wars Rodan, Imago Mothra and Gigan.
    *** = Also applies to the physical strength and durability of Monster X/Keizer Ghidorah.


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25177
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25183
    Part #4: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25187
  • KaiserWombat
    Finally...finally, we begin the final chapter of this Toho compendium*.

    (* = Insofar as the linear chronology of the films; there are tokusatsu features which are absent, some which will be omitted altogether, others that I either wasn't able to access at their 'appropriate' position in the timeline and continued onwards, or skipped over due to prioritising the Godzilla movies)


    #1 - Destructive Firepower (Absolute Zero Ray)


    On paper, a basic enough premise: the Gotengo, pressured by both the physical might of Manda and the excessively high temperatures aboard the all-terrain ship as a result of close magma proximity, fires up the pinnacle of its arsenal: the Absolute Zero Ray.

    Many of you may automatically cast your minds back to the previous instance of AZ technology employed in a Godzilla film, but sadly the principle of effect is not explicit, meaning I'll be going for the more 'standard' assumption of mechanics.

    And by 'standard', I defer to the (admittedly somewhat raw) evaluation and application of AZ-imposed molecular effects proposed by willyvereb:

    (source in comments section: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=22606)

    Like I said, even vereb appears a little tentative about it and fully admits that isn't a precise estimation of the actual effects in action, but I'm going to trust in his word and extrapolate results out of this calculation with his "enthalpy of atomisation, but in negative" remark.

    Enthalpy of atomisation, in really layman terms, is essentially the energy generated in severing the bonds of all the atoms within a molecule. Naturally, this value varies wildly depending on the type of atom, the type of bond between the atoms and the combination of atoms connected together.

    The Manda of Final Wars weighs 60,000 metric tons.

    When it came to physical composition, I decided that assuming Manda was 100% purely a certain element or singular compound was a little too disengenuous for my tastes, so I consulted the closest comparison for element breakdown: that of the human body.

    In an endeavour to keeping this calculation as simplistic as is feasible while still underpinning the core aspects necessary for decently accurate results, I'll be making a couple of key assumptions here:

    1) That the percentages for hydrogen and oxygen are to be treated in a sum format: basically, I'm assuming that roughly ~74% of FW Manda's body is made up of water. Humans, by comparison, typically hover at around 65-70% of total weight percentage composed of body water.

    2) When discussing the carbon proportion of Manda's mass, I'll be assuming that all of the carbon molecular bonds are single covalent (C-C) in nature, therefore using a lower-end bond energy value for their destruction.

    So, to jump into the calculation proper:

    Manda's mass = 60,000 metric tons.
    60,000 metric tons = 60,000,000 kg.


    Carbon comprises 18.5% of total body weight.

    60,000,000/100 = 600,000
    600,000*18.5 = 11,100,000 kg
    11,100,000 kg = 11,100,000,000 grams

    The relative atomic mass of carbon is 12.

    11,100,000,000/12 = 925,000,000 moles of carbon inside Manda.

    It takes 348 kJ mol-1 to disassociate a single covalent carbon-carbon bond.

    925,000,000*348*1000 (kJ -> J) = 3.219e+14 joules or 76.94 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    Water comprises 74.5% of total body weight.

    60,000,000/100 = 600,000
    600,000*74.5 = 44,700,000 kg
    44,700,000 kg = 44,700,000,000 grams

    The relative molecular mass of water is the sum of 2 hydrogen (atomic mass = 1) and 1 oxygen (atomic mass = 16), therefore making the answer 18.

    44,700,000,000/18 = 2,483,333,333.33 moles of H2O.

    To break the O-H bond in a water molecule, it requires a minimum output of 463 kJ mol-1.

    2483333333.33*463*1000 = 1.149783333e+15 joules or 274.80 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Total Energy

    274.80 + 76.94 = 351.74 kilotons of TNT equivalent in total.

    Really doesn't get to powerscale against anything else in the film or the setting at large, tbh: the AZ Ray immediately freezes the full length of a magma-hot Manda, so at least the average daikaiju of FW Earth are highly suspectible to its drainage.


    Unfortunately, just the following calc alone takes up too much space to continue onwards, so I'll have to wrap this one up a little prematurely: at this rate, I wouldn't be shocked if I get the first 4-parter for the last film entry, just out of measured shitty luck :lmao


    Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) - Part 1
    Energy Output (Absolute Zero Ray): 351.74 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25181
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25183
    Part #4: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25187
  • KaiserWombat
    The penultimate film entry~

    This'll be a quickie of a coverage: in fact, one of the shortest standalone blog entries for a Toho film that I have done in the entire compendium!

    Thank god.


    1# - Godzilla's Atomic Breath




    (warning: first image in spoiler is LARGE)

    Angsize to be deployed into active service:

    The result should be 13.215741440068 degrees.

    Angsize calculator

    The PoV distance is 96.855 metres.

    The timespan for the feat sequence is 9 frames; this film was shot at 24 FPS.

    9/24 = 0.375 seconds

    96.855/0.375 = 258.28 m/s

    Uber low-end result for the beam speed of Kiryu Saga Godzilla (seen in the previous entry), but at least still in the upper range of subsonic: trust me, they can get slower in portrayal.

    Pretty impressive reaction and physical evasion by Imago Mothra also, particularly if one follows the velocity figures of the Godzilla X Mechagodzilla calculation.


    A real firecracker of a feat for us here: Imago Mothra joined the fray against Godzilla during its return to Tokyo, as Kiryu was initially out-of-commission following the damage inflicted on the mech at the hands of its organic counterpart the previous year (and film). The moth daikaiju fought valiantly and endured great punishment at the hands of the King of All Monsters, but alas, its fate was to be interwined with tragedy.

    After sustaining severe damage from a previous Atomic Breath blast to the body, a second (might've been third) beam is too much for Mothra to bear, as it sacrifices its life for the protection of its twin offspring (newly born and already engaging Godzilla in order to aid their ailing parent), proceeding to burst into brilliant light & heat, leaving no discernable physical trace behind.

    And with no tell-tale signs or visual cues to indicate the survival of charred remnants or even a puddle of molten sludge, combined with the distinctive thermonuclear nature of the weapon of Mothra's bane, I've come to the conclusion that Imago Mothra was vapourised wholly by the Atomic Breath.

    So how energetic would such an intensive death be?

    We know of the quantity of biomass that was vapourised: Kiryu Saga Imago Mothra weighed 12,000 metric tons.

    12,000 metric tons = 12,000,000 kg

    But now, we need to determine the energy value contained within Mothra's flesh for obtaining the total sum of energy necessary to consume all of it in an immediate timeframe.

    I was originally planning to be somewhat lazy about this and head down the "human body vapourisation as placeholder" avenue for a quick and broadly accurate result, but the disparity of Mothra being a gigantic moth and all that made me decide to investigate further, in the hopes of obtaining an energy value relating to the evapouration or burning of biomass of insects.

    Lo and behold, I happened upon that holy grail of relatively underutilised approaches to calcing animal flesh destruction: calorific value of foodstuffs.

    Specifically, this website: roughly in the middle of the immediate page, the second column that directly follows the heading "Fat", we are provided various energy contents of a multitude of insect species that are commonly consumed across the world by human communities. In particular, I focused on the section which says:

    "Twenty- three species of caterpillars in Zaire, mostly Saturniidae, were found to average 457 kcal ( ~ 1919 kJ)/100g* dry weight, ranging from 397 to 543 kcal ( ~ 1667-2281 kJ) (Malaisse and Parent, 1980)."
    (*Actually represented in the text proper as a '9', but I am 99% certain that it is a simple typo created in the mass transportation of the book excerpt onto the webpage.)

    Given the proportional bulkiness of Imago Mothra compared to the overwhelming majority of butterfly and moth species, I feel that it isn't a significant issue at all to compare their energy content to those of hunger-intensive caterpillars.

    Also, for those who remain generally skeptical of this approach to evaulating vapourisation energy of biomass, I direct you to this bonus link: here, the .PDF document (it's embedded into the webpage, so no worries about download prompts) details a calculation for determining the vapourisation of an adult human, and the substitution of pork (due to numerous physiological similarities between pig and human meat), and most prominently of all, the application of pork's calorific content for determining the energy yield needed to destroy the flesh.

    Anyways, back on track:

    As it happens, 457 kilocalories is not equal to 1919 kilojoules in conversion terms: the actual equivalence is 457 kilocalories = 1913 kJ; 1919 kilojoules = 458 kcal. There isn't an actual gap of significance whichever route you translate, but I'll stick with the lower value for conservatism.

    So, 1913 kJ per 100 grams of Imago Mothra flesh. Let's break it down to the content per 1 gram:

    1913/100 = 19.13 kilojoules.

    12,000,000 kg = 12,000,000,000 grams is Imago Mothra's mass.

    19.13*12,000,000,000 = 2.2956e+11 kilojoules (2.2956e+14 joules) or 54.87 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Obviously, this benefits the energy output of Kiryu Saga Godzilla's Atomic Breath; following the events of Godzilla X Mechagodzilla, the Absolute Zero Cannon module's fuel source (a 1.25 metre wide synthetic diamond) was either permanently damaged or exhausted during the previous year's conflict, requiring a replacement that the Japanese government could not afford financially at that stage; instead, as a relatively last-minute decision, Kiryu is outiftted with a Hyper Maser module, exploiting the AZC-induced wound yet to fully heal on Godzilla's chest as a bullseye for the enhanced firepower to eventually induce death via sustained exposure. It almost certainly benefits from this powerscaling. Mothra's shedded wing scales can also scale to this calc in terms of a ceiling for their energy reflection properties.

    And...that's it. One more film to cover, and boy oh boy is it a biggun!


    Since I've got the character space to do it now...

    A special consideration should be given to the Kiryu Saga's uniquely expansive and encompassing chronology amongst the films of the Millennium era, as it incorporates many of the non-Godzilla daikaiju features of the Showa era to flesh out a background and provide lore to the development, both technologically and socially, of Japan leading up to the return of Godzilla in 1999 and the completion of MFS-3 Kiryu in 2002.

    Relevant article on Toho Kingdom detailing the intricate continuity of the Millennium films.

    The following Showa entries (for which I have provided relevant calc coverage for, at least) exist in-continuity as historical events occuring prior to the Kiryu Saga:

    Rodan (1956)
    Mothra [1, 2] (1961)
    Atragon (1963)
    Dogora [1, 2] (1964)
    Frankenstein vs Baragon (1965)
    War of the Gargantuas (1966)

    Calcs derived from the feats of the '61 Mothra film, in particular, should remain valid for cross-scaling with the Imago specimen of 2003, boosting durability to borderline megaton-level as the most prominent 'upgrade'.


    Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. (2003)
    Speed (Godzilla, Atomic Breath): 258.28 m/s
    Energy Output (Godzilla, Atomic Breath)*: 54.87 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    * = Also applies to the energy output of MFS-3 Kiryu's Hyper Maser unit, as well as the reflection capability of Imago Mothra's shedded wing scales.
  • KaiserWombat
    Fuck, let this film entry end already...


    8# - Destructive Firepower (Absolute Zero Cannon)

    This would've been the centerpiece calculation of the blog entry, and indeed of the film proper, but due in part to my own tardiness (:hurr), in addition to the dedication of a fellow Godzilla fan, I've been beaten to the punch!

    Normally, while I would quick recognise the work but otherwise continue on with my version, this particular calc is damn extensive to properly cover, and the poster in question did an excellently accurate and thorough procedure, one which I feel I could not replicate by other avenues at the moment.

    So I'll simply give credit to Gallavant, link to his calculation and detail the energy output result to a larger audience: 546.22 teratons of TNT equivalent.

    A massive yield, to be sure, and one that shares absolutely zero equivalent anywhere else in this particular setting. It's one of only two weapons to ever break the skin and gouge out parts of Kiryu Saga Godzilla's flesh (the other was a hand-drill employed by Kiryu in Tokyo S.O.S, and lord knows why that worked when nothing else came close to scratching G's hide), so there is no common precedent that would in powerscaling for pretty much any other move in the series.

    Therefore, no other organic ability or synthetic weapon in any of the setting's daikaiju (Godzilla, Kiryu, Larval + Imago Mothra) arsenals will benefit from direct scaling of the Absolute Zero Cannon.

    Kiryu Saga Godzilla was struck by the AZC at point-blank range, while underwater. The end result of the blast was an extensive but ultimately superficial circular gouge in Godzilla's chest, and sufficient mental trauma to send the daikaiju into near-immediate oceanic retreat. One year later, in the events of sequel film Tokyo S.O.S., Godzilla re-emerges from the Japan Trench with the injury not completely regenerated back and inciting tangible pain to Big G when the scar tissue is targeted, though at the same time it would appear that a significant majority of the biomass has healed over.

    I find it highly unlikely that MFS-3 Kiryu could possibly emerge from a thermal blast of that intensity at such a close range in any remotely operable condition, much less functioning as well as its organic counterpart was mere minutes after the experience: this is mostly due to the highly sensitive circuitry running all across Kiryu's body, plus the metallic exterior of Kiryu demonstrated in both films to not be on par with Godzilla's flesh in durability.

    9# - Destructive Firepower (Godzilla Breaks the Ice)


    The result of Godzilla's motions underneath its intended frozen tomb, immediately following the AZC blast. The vertical column is of seawater, blasted upwards from the sheer energy output of the AZC before being flash-frozen by the thermal effect.


    (Kiryu Saga Godzilla's height source)

    As I mentioned in Part II of this blog series, the scaling of Image #1 is misproportioned by a personal blunder regarding me misrecalling the pixel count for Godzilla's full body. However, this was the first calculation I figured out for this film, and I only noticed Image #1's flaw a while later, so both Images #2 and #3 follow the original erroneous pixel count derivation.

    Godzilla's tallest dorsal fin is meant to be 11.28 metres tall, while the ice column's width x height dimensions are actually 106.53 x 131.60 metres.

    Volume of a cylinder =

    V: 3.14*53.265*53.265*131.60 = 1,172,382.70 m^3

    Was unable to locate a source for ice density at -273.15 degrees Celsius, and the lowest temperature I could find readily was -100 degrees Celsius: that density is 925.70 kg/m^3.

    1,172,382.70*925.70 = 1,085,274,665.39 kg

    Once more with feeling, beautiful angsize-chan~

    This is for the ice column scaled image, btw.

    Ang: 68.097860373194 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 97.37 metres

    The timeframe for the feat is a whooping 45 frames (film is in 24 FPS), starting from here and finishing here (those remaining fragments only constitute an exceedingly minute fraction of the total mass).

    45/24 = 1.875 seconds

    97.37/1.875 = 51.93 m/s is the rate of velocity for the ice column mass dispersal.

    KE: (0.5)*1,085,274,665.39*51.93*51.93 = 1.463343607e+12 joules or 349.75 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Godzilla emitted such a great release of internal energy merely by upward body momentum against the ice column; pretty much casual as can be, and the omnidirectional and violent projection of the dispersed mass strongly indicates that the fragility of AZC-affected/atom-smashed materials did not contribute in any significant matter to the energy output result, given that vibrations shatter post-AZC structures in a strictly descending/subjected-to-gravity direction.

    Thus, Godzilla can generate this destructive power with fairly casual demonstrations of physical strength; MFS-3 Kiryu can easily withstand multiple physical blows consecutively from Godzilla with little to zero internal or external damage, plus can presumably generate similar levels of output with its own physical prowess.


    Godzilla X Mechagodzilla (2002) - Part 3
    Energy Output (Absolute Zero Cannon)*: 546.22 teratons of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Godzilla Shattering Ice, Kinetic)**: 349.75 tons of TNT equivalent.

    * = As detailed in the blog entry above, the energy value currently only applies to the destructive power of the AZC itself and arguably (in so much as the weapon only succeeded in annihilating a portion of the daikaiju's chest cavity as opposed to its entire body) to Kiryu Saga Godzilla's durability and physical endurance (G was fully capable of both walking and swimming approximately a minute after point-blank exposure to an AZC blast).

    ** = Also applies to the physical strength of MFS-3 Kiryu and the durability of both Kiryu and Godzilla; Godzilla's Atomic Breath and possibly Kiryu's Maser Cannon also can be scaled from this value.


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25078
    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25083
  • KaiserWombat
    Continuing from where I left off...


    5# - Reflex Speed (Kiryu Evasion)

    MFS-3 Kiryu turns out to have some pretty high-end reflexive maneouvres, when prompted:


    The entire sequence is 14 frames long, but I decided to focus on a particular section of the feat; namely, starting at the stage that the Atomic Breath beam enters the image.

    I had originally also set up a more basic (and possibly more accurate, depending on how the commentators remark upon my method below) speed calc based on from start of the sequence to finish, but I messed up the angle measurement by faulty location, and I am currently much too lazy to start it over (I'm a terrible human being): so, for now, you're gonna have to make due with the below work.

    The key to this approach is using the Atomic Breath itself as my timeframe for the motion of Kiryu's head + neck. I've obtained three velocity figures for this film's AB in my previous entry, so I will be inserting those calculated speeds to assist in determining the timespan.

    The velocities are:


    590.68 m/s


    1554.42 m/s


    3281.56 m/s


    (MFS-3 Kiryu's height source)

    I was at wits end trying to determine the arc length of Kiryu's downward motion in a single, concise process, but a complete happenstance occurred while I was doing a intra-NF Google search; I came across this 2 year old blog by EM, detailing the wonderful utility of GIMP.

    It's a safe, officially licensed download, and a very valuable tool for certain processes which are unavailable if you're using MS Paint or a similarly basic program.

    Anyway, with GIMP, I could quickly determine the central angle of the motion curve produced by Kiryu: 66.94.

    The formula for determining the arc length of a circle, when your angle is measured in degrees only (the formula differs when applying the central angle as radians, the typical unit used in arc length determinations).

    r = radius of the circle
    theta symbol = central angle of the arc

    Alternatively, simply employ the services of this helpful calculator (note: this automatically assumes the angle measurement in radians, it has a button below the input bars indicating where to convert the angle to degrees).

    The result should be around 17.36 metres.

    The full horizontal view of the sequence is 40.47 metres across. Using my three obtained speeds as a range of values:


    40.47/590.68 = 0.068514254757229 seconds


    40.47/1554.42 = 0.0260354344385687 seconds


    40.47/3281.56 = 0.0123325491534514 seconds

    Those will be our timespans in which Kiryu does the quantified part of the ducking motion (only using 8 out of the original 14 frames in the sequence).


    17.36/0.068514254757229 = 253.38 m/s


    17.36/0.0260354344385687 = 666.78 m/s (Mach 1.96)


    17.36/0.0123325491534514 = 1407.66 m/s (Mach 4.14)

    Some stupendous values for a daikaiju's physical movement there, in particular the high-end: I wasn't necessarily expecting such high results. Since the reflex was performed without use of Kiryu's jet propulsion, it's a safe bet that one could scale this physical velocity to Kiryu Saga Godzilla.

    Still, I am uncertain if how my usage of fan-derived speeds for the Atomic Breath as my baseline for the remainder of the calculation is in any way valid, so I welcome commentary and criticism below! For those curious: a direct speed calc of Kiryu's motion from the 14 frame sequence would garner a result roughly 10% as fast as the low-end obtained above.

    6# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Kiryu's Leap)

    1:07:06 - Kiryu just beginning its jump over Godzilla.
    1:07:08 - Kiryu landing on the other side of Godzilla.

    Once again, I turn to angsize:

    Image #1

    Ang: 23.273978226678 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 36.08 metres

    Image #2

    Ang: 32.302867631972 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 103.59 metres

    103.59 - 36.08 = 67.51 metres is the rough distance traversed by Kiryu in a single leap.

    67.51/2 = 33.755 m/s

    KE: (0.5)*40,000,000*33.755*33.755 = 2.27880005e+10 joules or 5.45 tons of TNT equivalent.

    7# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Kiryu Swings Godzilla)


    1:08:12 - Start of sequence.
    1:08:13 - End of sequence.

    (Kiryu Saga Godzilla's height source; if you didn't notice, the measurements of the first image are incorrect, due to me misinterpreting the pixel count of Godzilla's full body size: they were subsequently corrected in the later images):


    Image #2

    Ang: 3.686130336058 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 175.27 metres

    Image #3

    Ang: 26.088990384354 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 24.34 metres

    175.27 - 24.34 = 150.93 metres is the distance traveled by Godzilla in mid-throw.

    With a 1 second timespan, the speed is therefore 150.93 m/s.

    KE: (0.5)*25,000,000*150.93*150.93 = 2.847483112e+11 joules or 68.06 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Godzilla was pretty much unfazed from such an energetic impact.


    Ye gads, foiled once again! Goddamn character limitations (decided to carry over my Absolute Zero Cannon explanation to Part III despite fitting in here, to make it seem a little less filler)...

    Still, this time I've pretty much completed everything I wanted to cover for G X MG '02, so expect Part III to be up a few minutes from now!

    Godzilla X Mechagodzilla (2002) - Part 2
    Speed (Kiryu, Physical/Reflex)*: 253.38 m/s [low-end] - Mach 1.96 [mid-end] - Mach 4.14 [high-end]
    Energy Output (Kiryu's Leap, Physical Kinetic): 5.45 tons of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Kiryu's Toss, Physical Kinetic)**: 68.06 tons of TNT equivalent.

    * = Kiryu Saga Godzilla should be able to scale its physical speed from this feat; this speed feat in general likely only applies to limited melee-range motion for both daikaiju, as opposed to long-distance movement.

    ** = Also applies to both Kiryu and Kiryu Saga Godzilla's durability, and possibly to the energy yield of Kiryu's standard Maser Cannon (the only conventional weapon in its arsenal capable of even irritating Godzilla).


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25078
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25084
  • KaiserWombat
    Hey guys, remember when I promised to all of you that I would wrap up this compilation before the New Year began?



    Hope you all had a wonderful New Year's Eve/Day! Pretend like I didn't lie to you and say that this (and everything up to Final Wars that is a blog entry by myself) is actually getting posted on the 31st December 2014!


    1# - Projectile Velocity (MFS-3 Kiryu)

    Covering all of Kiryu's armaments in this one, so prepare for a bunch of sub-categories!


    Just need to establish the standing distance between Kiryu and the target (Goji) on the battleground:

    (Kiryu Saga Godzilla's height source)

    - First rocket emerges from launcher pod.
    39:05 - First rocket contacts Godzilla's body.

    Duration is thus 2 seconds.

    225.64/2 = 112.82 m/s


    Same measured distance as provided under the Rockets sub-heading.

    39:11 - First missile(s) emerge from launcher pod(s).
    39:15 - First missile contacts Godzilla's body.

    Duration is now 4 seconds.

    225.64/4 = 56.41 m/s

    Note that these missiles possess homing/tracking/seeking properties; the lower velocity result could be suggested as not actually resulting from being physically slower than the rockets, but rather having curve into a semi-circular arc rather than a linear path.

    Maser Gun (Mouth)

    A maser gun turret is located inside Kiryu's mouth, functioning almost as an artificial 'Atomic Breath'.


    (MFS-3 Kiryu's height source)

    This is our first of a great many angsize calculations to be done in this specific entry, so buckle up!

    The result should be 40.938430708828 degrees

    Angsize calculator

    The distance between our PoV and Kiryu is 29.39 metres.

    It takes 5 frames for the maser beam to traverse that distance.

    This film was shot at 24 FPS.

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds

    29.39/0.21 = 139.95 m/s

    A probable low-end for beam propagation, as we'll see later on in the blog entry...

    Beam Cannon

    Kiryu has a pair of 'gauntlets' over its forearms, with two beam turrets built into each 'gauntlet'.

    (Shirasagi body length source)

    1 of those frames actually occurred offscreen to the audience, but it is to include the part of the beam length already 'visible' as the sequence begins.

    Duration is 4 frames.

    4/24 = 0.17 seconds

    64.80/0.17 = 381.80 m/s (Mach 1.12)

    This velocity should apply to Kiryu's Maser Beam as well.

    2# - Projectile Velocity (Godzilla's Atomic Breath)

    And now for some speeds by Kiryu's organic counterpart!

    This calc will be arranged quite a bit differently from most of my beam propagation coverage in the past, due to the additional inclusion of moving objects in the sequence that can also provide me an additional range of timespans to work with.

    But first, the straightforward method (also, the low-end):


    Identification of the jet fighter(s) is not provided in this sequence, but they are most likely to be F-15 models: such planes are classified in G X MG's direct sequel Tokyo S.O.S., which occurs only a year in-verse after the events of its predecessor. F-15 jets are also the most common model of combat plane employed in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (the film setting is contemporary, 2003 IIRC), and are the primary deployment for interception missions, such as the rampaging Godzilla. The F-15 has a body length of 19.43 metres (look at the specifications of the left column).

    The beam length travelled from its visible origin point to making plane contact in 12 frames.

    12/24 = 0.5 seconds

    295.34/0.5 = 590.68 m/s (Mach 1.74)

    Simple enough, really. However, that's not the end of this.

    As I mentioned above, this sequence provides an opportunity for further beam velocity derivation, through comparative scaling of a real-world object, with a real-world speed, within the exact same sequence of events, constantly in motion. The object in question is the (probable) F-15 jet, specifically the foremost plane that actually gets struck by the AB.

    The jet's location in the first frame of the sequence; and the jet's location in the twelfth and last frame.

    369.95 - 292.23 = 77.72 metres is the distance that the jet managed to travel from when the AB first appeared to making contact with the plane.

    The F-15 Wikipedia article lists two possible speeds in its performance section: at low altitude, the maximum is Mach 1.12 (1450 km/h), while at high altitude, the maximum velocity is Mach 2.5+ (2660+ km/h). The Mach 2.5+ figure is backed up in the GlobalSecurity.org entry as well.


    Assuming that the F-15 is flying at Mach 1.12 during the sequence.

    Mach 1.12 = 408.33 m/s

    77.72/408.33 = 0.19 seconds becomes the new timeframe in which the AB travels during this sequence.

    295.34/0.19 = 1554.42 m/s (Mach 4.57)


    Assuming that the F-15 is flying at Mach 2.5 during the sequence.

    Mach 2.5 = 850.69 m/s

    77.72/850.69 = 0.09 seconds becomes the new timeframe.

    295.34/0.09 = 3281.56 m/s (Mach 9.64)

    I'm uncertain of my alternative method, given that there is such a linear and straightforward approach already available for use, but those velocity figures certainly look promising. If they are considered valid, then I think I'd choose the high-end value over the mid-end, given that I've only seen the "low altitude speed" on Wikipedia, which isn't the most comfortable assurance.

    Regardless of methodology, all of Kiryu's energy-projecting armaments (beam cannons, maser gun, Absolute Zero Cannon) should also scale in speed to the AB.

    3# - Flight Velocity (MFS-3 Kiryu)

    (rounded golden line up to 30 metres because of missing tail length in the first scaled image)

    Another angsize calculation.

    Image #2

    Ang: 14.668954836906 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 116.54 metres

    Image #3

    Ang: 2.949270440918 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 582.68 metres

    582.68 - 116.54 = 466.14 metres is the distance traversed between the two images.

    The timespan of the feat is 2 seconds.

    466.14/2 = 233.07 m/s

    Surprisingly enough for an airborne object of note in a Toho film, there are no official figures published for the flight velocity of MFS-3 Kiryu, so this is all we can go on, for now.

    4# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Godzilla's Kick)

    1:05:38 - Kiryu beginning to be launched backwards by the force of Godzilla's kick.
    1:05:41 - Kiryu collides with a nearby office building.

    Moar angsize

    Ang: 40.938430708828 degrees
    Distance (from PoV): 54.20 metres

    Duration for the feat is 3 seconds.

    54.20/3 = 18.07 m/s

    MFS-3 Kiryu weighs 40,000 metric tons
    40,000 tons = 40,000,000 kg

    Kinetic energy formula [KE = 1/2*mass*velocity^2]

    KE: (0.5)*40,000,000*18.07*18.07 = 6.530498e+9 joules or 1.56 tons of TNT equivalent.


    Character limit reached, so I'll be continuing this analysis in the next blog entry.

    Godzilla X Mechagodzilla (2002) - Part 1
    Speed (Kiryu Rockets): 112.82 m/s
    Speed (Kiryu Missiles)*: 56.41 m/s
    Speed (Kiryu Maser)**: 139.95 m/s
    Speed (Kiryu Beam Cannons)**: Mach 1.12
    Speed (Godzilla's Atomic Breath)***: Mach 1.74 [low-end] - Mach 4.57 [mid-end] - Mach 9.64 [high-end]
    Energy Output (Godzilla's Kick, Physical Kinetic): 1.56 tons of TNT equivalent.

    * = Homing missiles should be able to scale from the calculated speed of the rockets.

    ** = Maser and beam cannons should be able to scale from Godzilla's AB.

    *** = Mid- and high-end estimates rely on an uncertain methodology; if it's valid, then the high-end is likely to be the more accurate value.


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25083
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=25084
  • KaiserWombat
    1# - Projectile Velocity (D-03 Missile)


    (length citation for the Satsuma submersible)

    The missile went from emerging from the mobile turret to disappearing off-panel in the timespan of 9 frames.

    This film was made at 24 FPS.

    9/24 = 0.375 seconds

    7.51/0.375 = 20.03 m/s

    That's obviously a bare minimum speed for these missiles; following conventional model examples, the legitimate velocity range is probably closer to 10-fold the calculated number (the Tomhawk missile flies at around 247 m/s, for comparison).

    2# - Destructive Output (Oni Godzilla)

    (height citation for Oni Godzilla)

    Treating the destroyed volume as a basic cuboid:

    48.85*14.94*21.26 = 15,515.95 m^3

    Considering the nature of the environmental destruction (multiple 10+ metre boulders emerging as rubble, travelling almost exclusively downwards as opposed to energetically violent projection), I feel it is most apt to use our standard rock fragmentation value of 8 J/cm^3.

    15,515.95*1,000,000*8 = 1.241276e+11 joules or 29.67 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Should be scaled to both the physical prowess and durability of all three Guardian Monsters in the film as well.

    3# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Oni Godzilla)

    Operation: A Hop, a Skip and a Jump (Into a World of Hurt)

    Roughly midway through their short but intense fight, Baragon attempts to tackle Godzilla to the ground with a jump-aided collision, but the result doesn't turn out too well for our rabbit-dinosaur friend...

    50:05 - Baragon begins to move away as a result of the tail swipe.
    50:07 - Last shot of Baragon before disappearing off-screen.

    2 seconds is our duration for the feat.

    110/2 = 55 m/s is Baragon's velocity.

    Millennium-era Baragon weighs 10,000 metric tons.

    10,000 metric tons = 10,000,000 kg

    Kinetic energy formula incoming:

    KE: (0.5)*10,000,000*55*55 = 1.5125e+10 joules or 3.61 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Operation: Chasing the Dragon (Into a Skyscraper)

    Ghidorah finally arrives from Mt. Fuji to aid Mothra, and delivers the first significant harm to Godzilla in the entire film, even able to pierce through its super-durable scales with its fangs to draw blood. But Big G isn't a happy G, and decides that Ghidorah needs to be dismissed. Dynamically.

    (height citation for GMKG Ghidorah)

    So as long-term OBD "enthusiasts" (:maybe) may be able to discern right off the bat from the images, this will require some angsize work (oh joy)

    Angsize formula:
    PoV-Godzilla: 50.329061346074 degrees
    PoV-Ghidorah: 11.028034079492 degrees

    In terms of distance:

    PoV-Godzilla: 50.68 metres
    PoV-Ghidorah: 11.08 metres

    Godzilla-Ghidorah: 50.68 - 11.08 = 39.60 metres is the true distance.

    1:13:3 3 - Godzilla releases Ghidorah from its grip.
    1:13:35 - Ghidorah crashes into the building.

    Feat timespan is therefore 2 seconds.

    39.60/2 = 19.80 m/s

    GMKG Ghidorah weighs 25,000 metric tons.

    25,000 metric tons = 25,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*25,000,000*19.80*19.80 = 4.9005e+10 joules or 11.71 tons of TNT equivalent.

    5# - Godzilla's Atomic Breath

    And here it is, the succulent meat of the film being served!


    There are quite a few appreciable AB-related velocity calcs to cover now, so I'll try to limit the word count only to as much as necessary.

    Beam #1


    6/24 = 0.25 seconds

    222.89/0.25 = 891.56 m/s (Mach 2.62)

    Beam #2


    0.25 seconds again.

    139.57/0.25 = 558.28 m/s (Mach 1.64)

    Beam #3


    There has never been a Japanese battle cruiser issued or renamed as the Aizu for direct comparative purposes; fortunately, battle cruiser dimensions appear to be standardised at 222 metres.

    16 frames is the duration from the beam emerging on the far side of the Aizu to reaching the other end of the screen.

    16/24 = 0.67 seconds

    1354.97/0.67 = 2022.34 m/s (Mach 8.59)

    Beam #4


    IMDb profile on the actor cited in the first link, for the height source.

    Beam clarity is a minor issue in this particular feat: as a result, the energy-transmitting timespan is set on a range between 4-6 frames.


    6/24 = 0.25 seconds

    351.21/0.25 = 1404.84 m/s (Mach 4.13)


    4/24 = 0.17 seconds

    351.21/0.17 = 2065.94 m/s (Mach 6.07)

    In conclusion: the propagation velocity of Oni Godzilla's Atomic Breath varies between barely supersonic to close-to-high hypersonic levels: the mean would be in the borderline hypersonic range.

    King Ghidorah's Gravity Bolts should match up with the AB in terms of speedscaling.


    Thanks to a D-03 Missile being fired from inside Oni Godzilla's body (long story, watch the film) and piercing out through its neck, when its attempts to fire more ABs, the radiation energy leaks out of the open wound instead, steadily reducing the daikaiju's structural integrity before a third attempt finally results in near-total disintegration, with only its heart surviving the last blast.

    With zero traces of even minimal bodily debris or fleshy scraps remaining within the local vicinity of the heart, and given the thermonuclear properties of the Atomic Breath, I have concluded that the most probable scenario of self-destruction was the almost complete vapourisation of Godzilla's flesh.

    Taking a couple of cues from a previous calc of mine regarding biomass vaping:

    Oni Godzilla weighs 30,000 metric tons

    Volume = Mass (kg)/Density

    V: 30,000,000/948 = 31,646 m^3.

    31,646*1,000,000*8509.43 = 2.692894218e+14 joules or 64.36 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    It took 3 AB misfires to finally reduce Godzilla to a sufficiently vulnerable state for bodily vapourisation, but only one was necessary for the actual process; after absorbing Mothra's and Baragon's spiritual essences, King Ghidorah can set up energy barriers durable enough to tank, absorb and reflect back Godzilla's beam attacks.
  • KaiserWombat
    The third (and hopefully final) chapter to this film's volume of feats and calcs...


    4# - Flight Speed (Meganula)

    At the film beginning, Megaguirus manages to lay hundreds to thousands of eggs in a Tokyo district, before proceeding to flood it with incubative water and reverting into a dormant larval stage due to energy loss. The eggs hatch into Meganula, who are driven to revive their parent's energy reserves, at the cost of their own lives if necessary: they manage to be alerted to the thermonuclear emissions of Godzilla hundreds of kilometres away, before flying off in that direction to siphon some highly valuable energy from the daikaiju.

    A straightforward speed calculation, but with a slight twist: the audience is provided an explicit duration that very neatly contains the possible levels of velocity attainable by the Meganula swarm.

    Namely, the countdown timer for the Dimension Tide (DT) artificial black hole weapon, at 300 seconds (5 minutes).

    55:57 - The swarm departs from Tokyo, heading for Kigan-jima.
    56:41 - Countdown time for DT initiates.
    57:00 - Meganula swarm arrives at Kigan-jima.
    57:17 - Countdown timer for DT is completed.

    With an specific timeframe established in-verse, I feel it is most appropriate to the scenario to suggest that the Meganula arrived at Kigan-jima within a 5 minute interval, though I'll subtract off the additional 17 seconds between their arrival and the DT annoucement as a measure of generousity, leaving the timeframe as 4 minutes, 43 seconds.

    4 minutes, 43 seconds = 283 seconds

    The destination, as mentioned above, is Kigan-jima: a fictional Pacific island to the south of the island of Honshu. Fortunately, despite not existing in the real world, the film is kind enough to provide us both longitude and latitude values for precise co-ordinates: with those, I was easily able to determine an approximate location to trace to from Tokyo:

    898.07/283 = 3.17 km/s (Mach 9.32)

    Fairly impressive and, more importantly, fairly definitive hypersonic travel speed for an entire semi-mature species consisting of at least several hundred car-sized dragonfly kaiju with giant energy-siphoning stingers.

    A itsy-bitsy bitesize calc of kinetic energy for the Meganula:

    Specimens weigh 1 metric ton.

    KE = (0.5)*1000*3170*3170 = 5.02445e+9 joules or 1.20 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Small building-level destructive output via ramming effects: nasty stuff.

    This speed feat naturally scales to the fully matured Megaguirus (who incidentally, with a mass of 12,000 metric tons, would have a KE output of 6.02934e+13 joules or 14.41 kilotons of TNT equi.)

    5# - Projectile Speed (Dimension Tide)

    Ah, the ominous kill-sat itself finally has a noteworthy feat ascribed to its name!

    Basically, this is determining the velocity of the artificial black holes fired from the upper atmosphere to warp kaiju-tier threats into another dimension, destroying them in the process.

    1:00:56 - Dimension Tide releases its projectile.
    1:01:22 - The projectile makes contact with Kiganjima's surface.

    Incredibly basic speed determination from here.

    The timespan between activation and contact was 26 seconds.

    For travel distance, I'll be assuming that DT operates at a geostationary orbit (could possibly be geosynchronous, but there's no explicit reference for DT operating outside of Japanese territory or administration): 35,786 kilometres is their functioning altitude.

    35,786/26 = 1376.38 km/s (Mach 4044.87)

    I might need to look into another feat directly related to this one in more detail, as Godzilla manages to avoid the initial attempt at Kiganjima altogether, by burrowing underground before the black hole hits the surface, while the black hole is clearly within lower atmospheric boundaries. Possibly a timeframe to take advantage of? (though the issue of artificial speed-stacking then comes into play...)

    6# - Beam Speed (Atomic Breath)


    Feat #1

    The Griffon makes first contact with the rampaging Godzilla, as it finally makes landfall at Tokyo Bay for enigmatic reasons. It attempts to halt its journey of further carnage (in obvious vain), causing the daikaiju to retaliate with some thermonuclear beamwork.


    (Griffon body length sourced from here)

    Angsize, once again.

    Godzilla: 21.143673198316165 degrees
    Griffon: 21.855494256429125 degrees

    Angsize calculator

    Godzilla-PoV Distance: 147.35 metres
    Griffon-PoV Distance: 41.615 metres
    Godzilla-Griffon Distance: 105.73 metres

    It takes 5 frames for the AB to reach the original location of the fighter craft.

    Film is in 24 FPS.

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds

    105.73/0.21 = 503.48 m/s (Mach 1.48)

    Feat #2

    Godzilla has another go at the long-range view, this time to conclude the pitched battle against Megaguirus, by reducing the daikaiju into deep-fried critter.


    (Megaguirus' body length sourced from here)

    Timespan of the travel feat is 8 frames.

    8/24 = 0.33 seconds

    375/0.33 = 1136.36 m/s (Mach 3.34)

    Solidly supersonic at the least.

    7# - Flight Speed (Megaguirus)

    A couple of direct speed calcs from the insect queen itself!

    Feat #1


    Angsize back in action...

    Megaguirus' half-span is 78.96158970580075 degrees and thus is 24.28 metres away from the PoV.

    Megaguirus completely disappears off-screen after 7 frames.

    7/24 = 0.29 seconds

    24.28/0.29 = 83.72 m/s


    Feat #2


    Afterimage in its wake and all that jazz.

    (GxM Godzilla body length source [second heading from the top on monitor display])

    8 frames for the feat duration.

    94.38/0.33 = 286 m/s

    Much better result; still pretty bleh, though. The Meganula feat alone clearly suggests that this should be treated as a low-end result, not even considering the Griffon's ocean travel.


    Godzilla vs Megaguirus (2000) - Part 3
    Speed (Meganula; Flight): Mach 9.32
    Energy Output (Meganula; Kinetic)*: 1.20 tons of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Megaguirus; Kinetic): 14.41 kilotons of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Dimension Tide; Projectile): Mach 4044.87
    Speed (Atomic Breath): Mach 1.48 - Mach 3.34
    Speed (Megaguirus; Flight): 83.72 - 286 m/s


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24871
    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24879
  • KaiserWombat
    Huh, guess that last calc took up more space than I expected...


    2# - Energy Output (Atomic Breath)

    A much more helpful feat for combat application of GxM Godzilla's energy output.


    There's not much to indicate that the sphere of energy is actually emitting sufficient thermal radiation to consider a straightforward vapourisation of water calc.

    Therefore, I'll be applying a more atypical method for this calculation, one that hasn't seen all that much visibility since its original usage: namely, Chaos's and GM's usage of illuminance and luminous efficacy values to determine the power output of the sphere of light generated by the Atomic Breath.


    Surface area of a sphere =

    SA = 4,070,000,000 m^2

    Ole Faithful itself, the angsize formula, is in play here:

    Determined that the island of Shikoku is 3.686130336058 degrees in angular length.

    Angsize calculator

    PoV-Shikoku Distance: 3496.10 kilometres

    Notice the colour graph in the bottom-right corner of the satellite imagery?

    It shares a remarkable similarity to a lux measurement scale, both in terms of layout and units of measuring (exponents of 10): I feel that it would be entirely reasonable to deduce that is precisely the fictional chart's function is.

    If so, then looking at zoomed views of the sphere (available above) would greatly suggest that at least the vast majority of the emitted light is around 1000 lux in intensity.


    This will be a bare minimum estimate of the potential power output to compose the light source generated by the Atomic Breath.

    Luminous efficacy is much more difficult to precisely certify than illumination, not least due to the fact that we don't receive a similarly helpful chart in the film proper. Nonetheless, we do understand the nature of the light burst: a blast of thermonuclear energy. Thermonuclear explosions are described in official handbook info relating to thermonuclear weapons as exceeding blackbody temperatures "...greater than 10^7 K...".

    The luminous efficacy of an ideal blackbody radiator at 7000 K is 95 lumens/watt.

    So we've got accurate illumination and luminous efficacy values to work out the power output: great!

    There is an ever helpful calculator for determining the power output using the two aforementioned luminal values.

    These are the input values and the end result.

    4.285793767e+10 W = 4.285793767e+10 J per second or 10.24 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Extremely measly results, barely entering into the cityblock-levelling range. However, like I said: this is perhaps the lowest of the low-end range.


    For one, we know for a fact that our light source is visible from a much further distance than merely 36 kilometres.

    3496.10 kilometres, to be precise.

    This time around, I'll be following GM's equation route this time around, which is somewhat more direct than the low-end method I employed.

    He used the luminosity equation, typically used to determine the energy via brightness of a stellar body. However, it would appear that it can suffice in determining energy outputs of non-stellar effects as well.

    Anyway, the equation: F = L/4*pi*d^2

    Where F (measured in watts/m^2) = Energy/radiant flux; L = Luminosity (measured in watts); d = distance (measured in metres).

    For retriving the value of F, one needs to translate the lux value into the appropriate watts/m^2: I found this helpful forum thread which explain how, for sunlight (a placeholder in this case), a fixed value of 0.0079 needs to be multipled by the lux figure in order to obtain the proper w/m^2 (as lux measurement will only cover the energy emitted by the visible band of light).

    1000*0.0079 = 7.9 watts/m^2 within the radiation sphere.

    7.9 = L/(4*3.14*(3496.10*1000)^2)

    We alter the equation so that we're determining L rather than F.

    L = (4*3.14*(3496.10*1000)^2)*7.9 = 1.212786694e+15 watts/joules per second, or 289.86 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Much more impressive than the last yield. But there's still a high-end to come.


    Basically, the premise here is that the thermal radiation sphere generated by Godzilla's Atomic Breath is effectively parallel to the output of a traditional thermonuclear bomb. According to this official FAQ on nuclear weaponry:

    "The thermal radiation (visible and infrared light) falls on exposed surfaces and is wholly or partly absorbed. The radiation lasts from about a tenth of a second, to several seconds depending on bomb yield (it is longer for larger bombs). During that time its intensity can exceed 1000 watts/cm^2 (the maximum intensity of direct sunlight is 0.14 watts/cm^2)."

    1000 watts/cm^2 = 10,000,000 watts/m^2

    4,070,000,000 m^2 is the previously determined surface area of the radiation sphere.

    4,070,000,000*10,000,000 = 4.07e+16 joules or 9.73 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    So, a healthy range of yields to choose from. I'd personally subscribe to the mid-end myself, but in this particular instance, I'd wager that the ceiling of the output range paints a more accurate portrayal than the floor, for what that's worth.

    3# - Flight Speed (Griffon Fighter)

    37:24 - The Griffon is departing from the Tokyo coastline.
    37:25 - The Griffon begins its journey southwards.
    37:32 - The Griffon is directly below the Meganula corpse.

    Two speed calculations to be gleamed from this feat; the first shall serve as a low-end, the second as a high-end.


    Griffon travels from here to here in 1 second.

    This'll require the use of angsize once again (calculator).


    Image #2
    Size: 103.187498919554 degrees
    Distance: 9.35 metres

    Image #3
    Size: 9.71142504039 degrees
    Distance: 138.84 metres

    138.84 - 9.35 = 129.49 metres is the travel distance.

    Speed is therefore 129.49 m/s.


    This is determining the distance travelled by the Griffon to reach the Meganula corpse, in the extended timeframe referenced above.

    Note that the Meganula was within the diameter of the thermal radiation sphere emitted by Godzilla's Atomic Breath, which helps us pinpoint an approximate location in the Pacific.

    Duration for the feat is 8 seconds.

    519.60/8 = 64.95 km/s (Mach 190.87)

    Woah, talk about your massive speed ranges! Personally, I doubt the plane managed to traverse over 500 km in less than 10 seconds, so let's try some placeholder timeframes:

    1 minute: 519.60/60 = 8.66 km/s (Mach 25.45)
    30 minutes: 519.60/1800 = 288.67 m/s
    1 hour: 519.60/3600 = 144.33 m/s

    So, as it can be seen, the results are dramatically reduced with still highly reasonable timeframes: since we are not given a definite duration outside of measuring cinematic time, their validity is very much considerable.

    I should note that Godzilla never left that stretch of ocean, however: combine that with the fact that is very much on the move at this stage (and thus has no real reason to remain in the vicinity).

    The Griffon's travel velocity gets scaled to Megaguirus, who is far and away the fastest entity in pure movement in the film, and also arguably to GxM Godzilla's combat speed/reflexes (managing to perceive and eventually counter/parry Megaguirus's melee attacks).


    Godzilla vs Megaguirus (2000) - Part 2
    Energy Output (Thermal Radiation, Atomic Breath): 10.24 tons [low-end] - 289.86 kilotons [mid-end] - 9.73 megatons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Griffon Fighter, Travel): 129.49 m/s [lowest-end] - 288.67 m/s [low-end] - Mach 25.45 [mid-end] - Mach 190.87 [highest-end]


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24871
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24931
  • KaiserWombat
    Been absent with these for a long while now, over a month at this point.

    Still, better late than never, right?!


    1# - Energy Output (Boiling [Some Of] the Sea)

    Godzilla in this film belongs to a continuity where the Oxygen Destroyer was seemingly never developed, resulting in the Big G simply departing back to the deep ocean after wrecking Tokyo. The Japanese government relocates the capital to Osaka while reconstruction of Tokyo is set about. Godzilla re-emerges in response to the construction of Japan's first nuclear power plant in the early 1960s, resulting in legislature which banned all future usage of nuclear energy reserves. Godzilla then reappears and disappears again in Osaka in 1998, leading up to its latest emergence from the Japan Trench in 2001 (setting of 'present-day' film events).

    The appearance is detected by a dedicated anti-Godzilla government-sponsoured unit through thermal sensors.

    Essentially, a low-scale version of the East China Sea boiling calc I made for Godzilla vs Destoroyah (link).


    (link to length of Shikoku).

    For the vaguely teardrop-shaped structure of each superheated area, I decided upon a sum of two different shapes: the longer stretch being triangular, while the beginning of the section that begins to bend into a somewhat distinctive curve (almost bullet-esque, if you look at the second image inside the spoiler) being the cut-off point for a semicircle.

    The width lines measured in the second spoilered image, therefore, are actually misplaced (as this was not my original plan to work out the water volume): instead, they're meant to be positioned around where each rounded curve (in the direction towards the screen) is introduced. Sorry for any visual confusion!

    Area of a triangle =

    Area of a semicircle is simply half that of a full circle (which is )

    (NOTE: the lengths used under the triangle sub-heading are not those actually measured in the spoilered image: rather, they cut off immediately as the curve begins, so that they solely measure the "triangle" half of the shape)

    1. Blue Area


    (0.5)*43,270*243,390 = 5,265,742,650 m^2.


    (3.14*43,270*43,270)/2 = 734,874,963.25 m^2

    Total Surface Area

    5265742650 + 734874963.25 = 6,000,617,613.25 m^2.

    2. Cyan Area

    (0.5)*36,780*169,830 = 3,123,173,700 m^2.

    (3.14*18,390*18,390)/2 = 530,961,597 m^2.

    3123173700 + 520961597 = 3,644,135,297 m^2.

    3. Green Area

    (0.5)*25,960*116,830 = 1,516,453,400 m^2.

    (3.14*12,980*12,980)/2 = 264,514,228 m^2.

    1516453400 + 264514228 = 1,780,967,628 m^2.

    4. Red Area

    (0.5)*10,820*54,090 = 292,626,900 m^2.

    (3.14*5410*5410)/2 = 45,950,917 m^2.

    292626900 + 45950917 = 338,577,817 m^2.

    (Inside is my rough work for the calc; the actual final results are not contained inside, but it is important material nonetheless)

    Now, since each coloured area consititutes as an internal "layer" to form the overall thermal radiator, I'll have to factor out each smaller volume from the larger to get the true representation of affected seawater.

    Blue Area

    6,000,617,613.25 - 3,644,135,297 - 1,780,967,628 - 338,577,817 = 236,936,871.25 m^2

    Cyan Area

    3,644,135,297 - 1,780,967,628 - 338,577,817 = 1,524,589,852 m^2.

    Green Area

    1,780,967,628 - 338,577,817 = 1,442,389,811 m^2.

    Red Area

    Still 338,577,817 m^2.

    Now, the minimum possible depth for the thermal effects is directly referenced as being 20 metres, so it'll be treated as a uniform measurement here.

    236,936,871.25*20 = 4,738,737,425 m^3
    1,524,589,852*20 = 30,491,797,040 m^3
    1,442,389,811*20 = 28,847,796,220 m^3
    338,577,817*20 = 6,771,556,340 m^3

    The density of seawater is generally 1020 kg/m^3.

    4,738,737,425*1020 = 4,833,512,173,500 kg
    30,491,797,040*1020 = 31,101,632,980,800 kg
    28,847,796,220*1020 = 29,424,752,144,400 kg
    6,771,556,340*1020 = 6,906,987,466,800 kg

    The sea temperature gradient I utilised for measuring the heat was this: http://www.euroargo-edu.org/explore/argoeu_4.php. The fact that the dark blue rim was still highlighted, despite seemingly of the same temperature range as the rest of the ocean, makes me suspect that this occurred sometime around March (traditionally the coldest period of the year in this area of the Pacific).

    Assuming that the average ocean temperature is roughly 4 degrees Celsius (the median of the dark blue range):

    Blue Region: 5 degrees Celsius (high-end of the dark blue range)
    Cyan Region: 11 degrees Celsius (median of the cyan range)
    Green Region: 15 degrees Celsius (median of the green range)
    Red Region: 27 degrees Celsius (median of the red range)

    Now, to apply the specific heat formula.

    Shift the formula so it reads as:

    Q = C*mass*(final temperature - initial temperature)

    Specific heat capacities of water vary by temperature, so I'll outline the four different values to be used (source link):

    5 C = 4.204
    11 C = 4.193
    15 C = 4.1855
    27 C = 4.181

    Blue Region: Q = 4204*4.833512173e+12*(5 - 4) = 2.032008518e+16 J or 4.86 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Cyan Region: Q = 4193*3.110163298e+13*(11 - 4) = 9.128640296e+17 J or 218.18 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Green Region: Q = 4185.50*2.942475214e+13*(15 - 4) = 1.354730301e+18 J or 323.79 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Red Region: Q = 4181*6.906987467e+12*(27 - 4) = 6.641966358e+17 J or 158.75 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Region Sum: 323.79 + 218.18 + 158.75 + 4.86 = 705.58 megatons of TNT equivalent in total.

    Definitely impressive enough numbers, for certain. But are they necessarily combat-applicable?

    The best answer I can give is "Don't know for certain, but probably not", what with factoring in the thermal conductivity in water vs the air or the nature of the effect as a gradual passive emission of radioactive energy. However, it is shown in the film that the heat signature can manifest and disappear from real-time resoluting satellite imagery, seemingly across the entire affected range, within the span of seconds. Will update with links later.


    Godzilla vs Megaguirus (2000) - Part 1
    Energy Output (Godzilla, Sea Boiling): 705.58 megatons of TNT equivalent.


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24879
    Part #3: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24931
  • KaiserWombat
    Continuation of the previous blog.


    4# - Firepower (Atomic Breath)

    Godzilla finally succeeds in landing a direct hit on the Millennian UFO with its Atomic Breath while Orga is 'distracted' by the unaccountable mutagenic reaction by its absorption of Godzilla's unique cellular composition into its own mass. It results in the destruction of at least half of its frame as a result (pre-damage | post-damage).

    Some scaling links (including magazine verification of the UFO's stats):


    Treating the destroyed shape as a triangular prism: the volume result should be roughly 144,000 m^3.

    While the original entry for it was lost recently, it was determined that fragmentation of military-grade steel was in the region of 1 kJ/m^3. Evidence of fragmentation. I think the spaceship material being comparable to that quality of steel is a fair comparison.

    144,000*1,000,000*1000 = 1.44e+14 joules or 34.42 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Orga has portions of its body 'scraped' by this thermal beam at least twice and eventually is struck dead-on from a couple dozen metres away: all three instances resulted in fairly significant superficial tissue loss, but ultimately recovered to optimal condition in the span of seconds to a couple minutes at the worst, thanks to the highly advanced high-speed regeneration stolen from the King of All Monsters itself. The UFO also manages to remain functional even with roughly half of its frame gone, but eventually appears to be rendered completely inoperable with a second Atomic Breath.

    5# - Firepower (Thermonuclear Pulse)

    Part #1

    After the AB attempts prove to be insufficient in eliminating Orga, the latter appears to feel that the fight is in the bag and goes for the melee 'kill': one of the alien's physiological quirks is its ability to casually absorb and assimilate DNA from the opponent through physical contact (specifically from the mouth), with the greater quantity of material taken naturally resulting in the more dramatic evolution to more closely replicate the target.

    To that end, Orga attempts to complete its mutagenic transformation and effectively become a second Godzilla by swallowing the original whole: however, it doesn't count for the Big G holding an ace up its scaly sleeve, which proves to be Orga's undoing.

    Basically, Godzilla unleashes an extremely powerful omnidirectional wave of heat energy with its body functioning as the epicentre (identical in function to the Nuclear Pulse attribute of Heisei Godzilla, but with added thermal effects). The immediate result once the energy dissipates.


    (Source for Milllennium Godzilla's body length)

    As the spoilered image should indicate, there are two potential body volumes that one should need to take account of for this calc: the volume of the destroyed section that is composed of solid flesh and bone (the volume of value) and the hollow volume of air that is 'encased' within post-mutation Orga's extendable and unhinged jaws and cannot be factored into the final result.

    So we'll start with evaluating the hollow volume of the scaled portion(s), treating both its and that of the solid portion's shape as cuboids:

    Volume of a rectangular prism =

    For the width, I will be returning to a previously scaled image from the last entry, namely the image of Godzilla's measurements, specifically the shoulder-to-shoulder distance of 17.01 metres, which were to be entirely enveloped in the gaping maw of Orga without a hitch.

    Solid Volume

    35.05*22.78*17.01 = 13,581.45 m^3

    Hollow Volume

    21.03*19.28*17.01 = 6896.85 m^3

    'True' Volume Destroyed

    13,581.45 - 6896.85 = 6684.60 m^3

    Now, given the relatively clean-cut destruction markings and total disappearance of physical evidence of Orga's upper body in the aftermath, in addition to the implicit thermal properties of the blast, I feel supremely confident in my judgement of the feat resulting in an act of vapourisation.

    I suspect I would not be successful in precisely pinning down on an accurate result even with my "search engine wizardry" for vape energy values of a reptilian counterpart, so I did go for a placeholder of sorts: namely, the minimum energy per mass consumption required to entirely vapourise the core consitituency of elements composing the human body (I'm uncertain if the relative water:carbon ratio in animal bodies holds up as largely consistent across most terrestrial/amphibious vertebrate species, but any attempts at resolving the issue without expiring too much time had been unsuccessful).

    The result was 8509.43 J/cm^3.

    6684.60*1,000,000*8509.43 = 5.824364458e+13 joules or 13.92 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Drearily underwhelming result, and one that doesn't really appear to make much sense when considered in the context of the film: both Godzilla's regular Atomic Breath and even the Millennian UFO's physical kinetic output both register higher in value than the Big G's ultimate attack, and yet post-mutation Orga could easily weather the proverbial storm of offence from either ability with just a touch of regeneration, a problem that shouldn't be negated magically by this particular instance.

    Part #2

    Fortunately, that isn't the end of the feat: a couple minutes after the initial firestorm of thermonuclear energy subsided, the remaining lower half of Orga's biomass also begins to dissolve into ashes.

    I had originally left that aspect out of the equation altogether, out of uncertainty as to how I could justify the temporal discrepency in the degradation process of the body halves (a full two minutes expires between the end of the firestorm and the lower half sequence), plus we don't even fully witness the end result of the dissolution. Nonetheless, in light of the visual evidence, I think it would be perfectly adequete to propose a high-end evaluation by assuming the vapourisation energy required to completely dissolve all of post-mutation Orga's mass (40,000 metric tons).

    Now, it may seem a little directionless at this stage: after all, the only novel value I've obtained is one of mass/weight, when I previously was calculating the energy output through volume, resulting in two incompatible values!

    Fret not, however: I previously attempted to solve Part #1 of this now extensive feat through the application of mass as my fundamental value, and as a result have successfully determined a possible route to reconcile my options.

    A combination of basic investigative skills and the wonderful accessibility of Google Search enabled me to find not one, but two supremely appropriate RL equivalents to potentially deciphering the density of a daikaiju with predominantly reptilian physiology (thanks to the large-scale assimilation of Godzilla DNA, I think it would be fair to classify post-mutation Orga in a similar vein to the Big G itself).

    Source for both crocodile (archosaurian reptile) and chicken (avian [direct dinosaurian descendent]) densities. I personally chose to solely continue the calculation with the adult crocodile density of 948 kg/m^3 for reasons I've yet to entirely comprehend for myself. Feel free to explore the other routes and avenues for yourself, though!

    With both density (948 kg/m^3) and mass (40,000,000 kg) available, I should be easily able to determine the probable volume of Orga as a whole.

    40,000,000/948 = 42,194.09 m^3

    42,194.09*1,000,000*8509.43 = 3.590476553e+14 joules or 85.81 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    That seems altogether more appropriate, and also concludes this two-parter~

    Godzilla 2000: Millennium (1999) - Part 2
    Energy Output (Atomic Breath)*: 34.42 kilotons of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Godzilla, Thermonuclear Pulse): 13.92 kilotons [low-end] - 85.81 kilotons** [high-end?] of TNT equivalent.

    * = Also applies to the energy output of the DET beams of both the Millennian UFO and post-mutation Orga, as well as the durability of Godzilla and Orga.

    ** = Not a "high-end" in the typical context of an OBD feat/calc evaluation, as the evidence of the projected output undeniably occurs in the film, but the nature of the delayed response/effect remains questionable.


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24645
  • KaiserWombat
    First entry of the third and final phase of Toho's Godzilla franchise (thus so far, at least), the so-called "Millennium Era" (note that unlike both Showa and Heisei, Millennium is 100% fanon as a term and does not appear on a single piece of Godzilla or G-related merchandise/products/official databases in the context of describing a particular period of Godzilla filmography).


    1# - Travel Speed (Millennian UFO)

    Get used to the UFO, you're gonna be seeing it a lot on this (and possibly a second) entry: Godzilla 1999 very much centres its plot and the majority of the action around the spacecraft rather than the alien residing inside (Orga, even post-mutation, feels very much like an afterthought tacked on following the ominous threat and demonstration of the UFO's power: it's probably the biggest weakness of the film, or at least the most obvious to describe after a viewing IMHO).

    Anyway, the UFO gets to show off quite a few decent in-atmosphere velocity feats in the first half of the film: I'll be covering three such sequences!

    Feat #1

    After loitering around on the ocean surface directly above the Japan Trench, due to minimal interaction with concentrated light sources (light is hypothesised in-verse to be the primary fuel for the spacecraft), the morning sunrise provides enough juice to fully re-activate the UFO (enameled with layers of sediment over 60~70 million years), hence the giant rock resemblence), then zooms off towards the Japanese coastline in a short timeframe.

    38:00 - The UFO departs towards Japan.
    39:48 - The UFO arrives in Godzilla's general location.

    Timeframe is therefore 1 minute, 48 seconds or 108 seconds.

    In terms of the distance traversed, we are made aware that the UFO's launch point was around the Japan Trench (unfortunately, there's no explicit statement referencing the trench while they are viewing the UFO on the water's surface for correlation purposes, so you'll have to take my word on it); the destination is the Tokai, situated in the Ibaraki prefecture on the island of Honshu.

    I have done a rough estimate on the distance via Google Earth:

    (Tokai's too small of a metropolitian area to receive name visibility at the necessary view for the full length capture, but a cursory Google or Google Maps search should yield the same visual result more-or-less.)

    199.10/108 = 1.84 km/s (Mach 5.41)

    Already yielding a baseline hypersonic result, and this is the lowest value of the three! Promising material.

    Feat #2

    Following the brief skirmish with Godzilla that resulted effectively in a draw, the UFO makes a tactical retreat, as it turns its attention toward Tokyo and the vast supercomputer network contained within the capital.


    (Source for UFO wingspan)

    As one might gather, angsize will be quite necessary here:

    Image #1: 36.38283109375 degrees
    Image #2: 2.75131162314 degrees

    Distance (obtained via calculator):

    Image #1: 197.80 metres
    Image #2: 2706.70 metres

    2706.70 - 197.80 = 2508.90 metres is the 'true' distance.

    Feat occurs in the span of just 1 second, therefore resulting in the speed as being 2508.90 m/s (Mach 7.37).

    Feat #3

    Last, but certainly not least, the UFO travels from the Tokai to Yotsukaido districts/villages in a short timeframe.

    Aerial distance is determined to be approximately 96.20 kilometres.

    54:14 - Just leaving Tokai (immediately following Feat #2).
    54:49 - Officially sighted over Yotsukaido.

    Duration of the feat is 35 seconds.

    96.20/35 = 2.75 km/s (Mach 8.08)

    2# - Energy Output (Millennian UFO Beam)

    During the brief conflict between the UFO and Godzilla at Tokai, the UFO demonstrates the power contained within its energy blast, launching Godzilla across half a lake and straight through a warehouse hundreds of metres away.

    Timeframe of the feat:

    40:45 - Beam makes initial contact with Godzilla.
    40:48 - Godzilla collides with the warehouse.

    Duration is therefore 3 seconds.


    (Source for Millennium Godzilla's height.)

    Once again, applying angsize formula for the calc:

    Godzilla: 26.046537310246 degrees
    Warehouse: 8.0971841477 degrees


    Godzilla-PoV: 71.34 metres
    Warehouse-PoV: 423.36 metres

    Godzilla-Warehouse: 423.36 - 71.34 = 352.02 metres

    352.02/3 = 117 m/s is the travel velocity of Godzilla.

    Millennium Godzilla weighs 25,000 metric tons.

    25,000 metric tons = 25,000,000 kg

    KE = (0.5)*25,000,000*117.34*117.34 = 1.72108445e+11 joules or 41.13 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Low enough per recent daikaiju standards, but still registering at least in the multi-cityblock destructive range.

    Godzilla was unharmed by the attack, pretty much.

    3# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Millennian UFO)

    During the second and final encounter in downtown Tokyo, the UFO, after its primary beam weapon fails to deliver lasting harm to Godzilla, attempts (by its standards) the unconventional tactic of the kinetic energy formula in a practical application against the daikaiju.

    We have three different speed values to work with, so a low-mid-high end spectrum will be applied here.

    The UFO's mass is 19,000 metric tons.

    19,000 tons = 19,000,000 kg


    Mach 5.41 = 1840.90 m/s

    KE = (0.5)*19,000,000*1840.90*1840.90 = 3.219467169e+13 joules or 7.69 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    Mach 7.37 = 2507.85 m/s

    (0.5)*19,000,000*2507.85*2507.85 = 5.974846041e+13 joules or 14.28 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    Mach 8.08 = 2749.44 m/s

    (0.5)*19,000,000*2749.44*2749.44 = 7.181449298e+13 joules or 17.16 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Godzilla's response to this potential kinetic threat?

    Casually swatting the UFO in mid-flight, with nary a scratch or even a degree of recoil in reaction to deflecting the vessel.

    3# - Beam Speed (Atomic Breath)

    Feat #1

    The half-destroyed UFO (being remotely controlled by the now-revealed and mutated Orga) makes one final stand in halting Godzilla's offensive, only to receive a nice Atomic Breath snug on the nose for its troubles.

    (NOTE: I've reached my image limit on this blog entry, so from here on out, any further scalings will be accessed via direct link.)

    As the image itself states, I determined the beam propagation timeframe to be 8 frames.

    This feature was filmed at 24 FPS.

    8/24 = 0.33 seconds

    258.26/0.33 = 782.61 m/s (Mach 2.30)

    Feat #2

    Actually in an earlier scene (pre-Orga reveal), but I arranged this in order of calculating the feat, so fuck it~

    Bascially, another Atomic Breath demonstration against the UFO, but this time, Big G fires off a sizable portion of the beam in an extremely short timeframe:


    That distance is traversed in the span of 1 frame.

    1/24 = 0.04 seconds

    56.06/0.04 = 1401.50 m/s (Mach 4.12)

    Even faster than before, but these are just the results of direct visual analysis: Godzilla had shown to be capable of striking the UFO with its AB while the latter was flying, so the likelihood of the AB beam velocity entering the hypersonic range is relatively high.


    Character limit means that I'll continue this coverage in the next blog entry.

    Godzilla 2000: Millennium (1999) - Part 1
    Speed (Millennian UFO, Atmospheric Travel): Mach 5.41 [low-end] - Mach 7.37 [mid-end] - Mach 8.08 [high-end]
    Energy Output (Millennian UFO, DET Beam): 41.13 tons of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Millennian UFO, Physical Kinetic): 7.69 kilotons [low-end] - 14.28 kilotons [mid-end] - 17.16 kilotons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Atomic Breath): Mach 2.30 [low-end] - Mach 4.12 [high-end]


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=24651
  • KaiserWombat
    The finale of the Rebirth of Mothra trilogy, and even more significantly, the true conclusion to the Heisei era in the Toho compendium. Not too far now until the end at this stage.


    1# - Travel Speed (Mothra Leo)

    Amazing how the tradition continues throughout the trilogy, but once again we open this with a Mothra flight speed feat.

    Basically, this is Rainbow Mothra Leo travelling towards Grand King Ghidorah after the Elias twins summon the moth to their position for assistance against the space daikaiju.


    (Source for Rainbow Leo's wingspan).

    The angsize formula:
    Image #1: 1.910248591572 degrees
    Image #2: 39.439377530566 degrees

    Using the angsize calculator, we then input for distance:

    Image #1: 1589.50 metres
    Image #2: 73.93 metres

    1589.50 - 73.93 = 1515.57 metres is the 'true' distance travelled by Leo.

    As for the timeframe:

    24:45 - Beginning of sequence.
    24:52 - End of sequence.

    (The screencaps marking the time are the exact same as those I used for scaling inside the spoiler, so I didn't bother linking up virtual copies.)

    Duration is thus 7 seconds.

    1515.57/7 = 216.51 m/s

    Yet another relatively unimpressive result for pre-combative Mothra flight.

    2# - Physical Kinetic Energy (Grand King Ghidorah)

    After Rainbow Leo's opening engagement of energy blast spam was essentially no-sold by GKG's passive energy shielding, GKG returns the favour with brutal punishment of its own, battering Leo with signature Gravity Bolts until culminating in a melee beatdown, tossing the hapless moth high into the air in a short timeframe.

    The feat occurred in the span of just 1 second (28:19-28:20).

    Therefore, the velocity that Leo's body is travelling at should be 223.78 m/s.

    Rainbow Leo weighs 5900 metric tons.

    5900 metric tons = 5,900,000 kg

    Obvious incoming kinetic energy equation.

    KE = (0.5)*5,900,000*223.78*223.78 = 1.477285908e+11 J or 35.31 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Exceedingly low result relative to the power of the daikaiju once again.

    3# - Physical Durability (Grand King Ghidorah)

    EDIT: Given the understandable controversy behind the methodology being applied for the calculation, I'll just spoiler all the information and, for now, deem this feat's result(s) as unverified.

    Ultimately, this is a piece of speculation or conjecture I have devised to potentially assess the upper ceiling of GKG's otherwise unquantifiable supremacy over Rainbow Mothra Leo and possibly explain the hype in the early stages of the film regarding vague description of Ghidorah's accomplishments during the Cretaceous period.

    GKG is just after thoroughly beating Rainbow Leo to a state of near-immobility; when it resumes its original objective of kidnapping Japan's prepubescent human population to convert into valuable and nutritious life essence, Leo alerts the remaining Elias Moll of his plan: combine its raw speed and Moll's Elias ritual magic to reach the speed of light in order to break through the time barrier and travel back 130 million years into the past and pre-emptively assault a much younger and more manageable King Ghidorah, hoping to kill it and retroactively eliminate GKG and its actions from the timeline.

    However, while re-watching the segment where Moll translates Leo's plan to the main protagonist, I couldn't help but consider another potentially viable option: "Why not avoid the risk over-exerting both of their energies in a time travel scenario, as well as potentially risk 'stranding' Leo in the Cretaceous era should both Elias bite the dust, and instead speed Leo up to relativistic velocity and attempt to ram GKG from behind or the side?"

    My potential answer is: "Because it wouldn't be powerful enough to actually injure GKG."

    There is no 100% definitive evidence for me to support this view, but I'll illustrate a couple of points that may perhaps assist my argument:

    1. Leo's assertion that the only method capable of defeating GKG is the time travel strategy. This is in spite of Moll's protests to Leo that, with only one of the Elias twins available for the ritual (Moll's sister Lora was under the mental control of Ghidorah at this point in the film), the process would be ultimately incomplete and be unable to retrieve Leo back into the present time (and as we see a few minutes later, the energy strain on a single Elias for this ritual results in permanent crystallisation). Eventually, Moll not only concedes to Leo, but even agrees with his decision before re-asserting (this time as her own opinion) that time travel is the sole option able to take out GKG.

    Thus, Leo and eventually Moll both are willing to strand the sole benevolent daikaiju remaining on RoM-verse Earth 130 million years into the past with seemingly no possibility of a safe and healthy return, not only risking the unchecked rampage of GKG should Leo underestimate the strength of its Cretaceous era self (which actually does happen in the film proper to a minor degree, reinforcing the desperation aspect further) and be killed, but also the absence of a buffer to the previous daikaiju antagonists Desghidorah and Dagahra, both of whom operated easily as global environmental threats on the same scale (though not nearly as powerful) as GKG. Not to mention the sacrificial death of one of only two beings both capable of communicating directly with Mothra and doing so for the benefit of humanity. This is an enormous risk to undertake without 100% certainty of positive results, while at least with a theoretical relativistic KE strategy, you'd guarantee that Leo would remain on the planet in the present to at least distract GKG's attention for a duration of time, even if the plan failed, plus the assurance that the previous villains are no longer viable threats to the planet's inhabitants.

    2. Hype of Grand King Ghidorah's destructive might points towards astronomically high power by RoM-verse standards: it's implicated early on (actually stated more-or-less as fact by the Elias) that Ghidorah was responsible for a major dinosaurian extinction event at approx. 130 MYA. Moll confirms the suspicion, later with an explicit reference to Ghidorah being personally responsible for roughly 50% of the species deaths from this period. This suggests extensive devastation across a likely planetary scale. Plus, with Ghidorah's method of extraterrestrial travel being demonstrated as transmuting itself into a meteorite in this continuity, correlation to objects such as the Chicxulub impactor become immediately apparent.

    3. The time travel sequence itself would appear to be directing towards the plausibility of a relativistic KE strategy were it to be effective against GKG: Leo spends the entire sequence continuously accelerating in a tunneling effect (even transforming in mid-flight to the more streamlined Aqua Mothra, suggesting that the daikaiju could not simply attain the necessary prerequisite automatically with its 'base' power or through the ritual); the official designation of the final transformation inside the 'tunnel' as Light Speed Mothra [the speed/time connection]; the plausible explanation of the blinding white 'event horizon' at the end of the sequence as being the literal light barrier, with the indication that Leo did not automatically jump to LS and needed to gradually accelerate to break past that obstacle; and finally, the observation that Leo immediately reverted back to Rainbow form once it arrived at the Cretaceous and then never achieving the otherwise extremely convenient LS/time travel form again, heavily implying the necessity of the gradual acceleration in order to access it.

    With all that said, I'm going to propose the hypothetical KE output of Leo (we'll say in Aqua form) travelling at the fastest possible mass-eligible velocity it can muster (99.99% c)

    Mass value is 3,500,000 kg (Aqua Mothra weight).

    Relativistic KE calculator.

    Result should be 2.193e+25 joules or 5.24 petatons of TNT equivalent.

    The concept would be that this energy value applies to the durability (and possibly offensive power) of Grand King Ghidorah, as well as the stats of Armour Mothra Leo.