To keep track of the calc for the future.
The Destiny Nova Bomb is the Super of the Voidwalker sub-class of Warlock Guardians. In the first game, this Super was given an...interesting lore description:
Channel the Traveler's Light into a bolt of energy with the power of a collapsing star. The devastating Nova Bomb scours the battlefield with ethereal fire - but be careful in its use. It takes precious moments to summon, and it must be aimed precisely to avoid obstacles.
For my part, I have been skeptical about this description in the past because of how I thought this could get inflated to unreasonable levels i.e. actual supernova levels, and I've puzzled over how to actually calculate this.
For the purpose of this calc, however, I'll be taking the description at face-value. As for what I could use to calculate this, the Nova Bomb description makes note of ethereal fire, so I'll use the below formula:
Credits to @MatthewSchroeder for their example of the above formula at work.
Two variants exist for the Nova Bomb (in Destiny 2) - Attunement of Chaos, which launches a sphere the size of an average Guardian (official height is apparently 1.88 meters) which is slow but tracks enemies with explosive power that generates smaller Void Light spheres on imact; Attunement of Hunger Nova Bomb is a large sphere about bowling ball-sized (I think), but trades its size for speed and creates an intense gravity well (description calls it a singularity) that damages enemies caught inside it.
In the original Destiny, the Nova Bomb was more akin to Attunement of Hunger's variant with three modifiers: Vortex, Shatter (splits into three) and Lance (travels further and faster)
The two should be roughly equal in power (same ability, different application), but I'll do a calculation for both sizes.
Chaos - Surface area (sphere) = 11.10 m^2; Destructive Capacity = 5.3050788E+37
Hunger (and Destiny 1 variant) - 226.98 in^2; Destructive Capacity = 7.6387662132163E+35
It is entirely possible there is a flaw in this calculation, but there you have it. Taking the "power of a collapsing star" description at face value, the above is the end result. While ten magnitudes lower than the unreasonable levels I imagined it being inflated to, this is still quite an insane number.
Large Planet-level Destiny Guardians.
Human Body Emissivity: 0.98
Yamamoto's Body Surface Area: 1.5 to 1.6 m^2
Zanjitsu Gokui Temperature: 15,000,000 K
Result: 4.21 x 10^21 Joules to 4.5 x 10 ^ 21 Watts
As a result, the total energy released over a time frame of five minutes: 1,350,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = 1.35 x 10 ^24 Joules.
NOTE: Apologies if this method was done once before already.
@Regicide This falls within range of what you got here, yes? https://www.narutoforums.org/threads/bleach-zanka-no-tachis-total-heat-energy.1115857/
#5 - When two super-massive black holes smashed together to create a new black hole, the collision was so massive that the fabric of reality itself felt the collision, and we were able to detect it with LIGO when the collision proper took place 1.5 billion years ago.
#4 - Even though particle accelerators can create anti-matter, the Feynman-Stueckelberg interpretation proposes that antimatter annihilation occurs because antimatter is matter that travels backwards in time. Normal matter goes forward; antimatter goes backwards; if the two hit each other, it is a fourth dimensional collision. It is one of many ideas, but it already works in equations. "Antimatter inverts all kinds of important quantities, but instead of inventing a new mode of matter, you get the same effect by multiplying time by -1. "
Basically, time-travel exists in the form of antimatter.
Use word search, and look for "Backwards" to take you to the relevant point.
#3 - This is the one that inspired Feynman up above - the idea that all electrons in the Universe are, in fact, one Electron that is effectively omnipresent, going forwards and backwards in time and across the universe to be "all electrons" in existence simultaneously, as well as all positrons, its antimatter "counterpart". It is not a "theory" because it can't be disproved.
#2 - In the long journey to make General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics "become one" and stop seemingly contradicting one another, one of the theories that has appeared is that spacetime is a liquid - the superfluid vacuum theory, modelling empty space as a friction-less fluid, and that reality is like the waves of the sea. "Studies of high-energy x-rays and gamma rays from the Crab Nebula have already refined the theory, confirming that if space is a fluid, it must be utterly friction-less."
#1 - The universe is stable...ish. While an empty vacuum may be considered the lowest energy state of existence, if there is a state of energy below it, then puncturing an "empty vacuum" would cause a vacuum metastability event that would obliterate the current universe, and create a new one from the reality fracture point. The Large Hadron Collider tested this when it discovered the Higgs Boson, measured at around 125 GeV...not accounting for errors (plus or minus 5.6 GeV), the estimated mass required of a Higgs for a universe to not pop like a balloon is 129.8 GeV.
Basically, #1 might be what happens if the Big Rip occurs at the end of the Universe.
I have been reading through this essay and, I must say, I cannot disagree with anything that has been presented by it so far.
It goes back to last year, and I must say that I see where this is coming from.
I'll give my final thoughts when I have fully read through it.
Well, I delayed in my response, but I will say this about the essay: I am well and truly sold on the idea.
I would have to re-read it to truly give my thoughts on the matter, but I can truly say that I understand what this essay was trying to convey.
We have been getting a lot of Soul King Palace to Seireitei (or vice versa) in the past year, haven't we?
First, we had Ichigo, Rukia, Renji and Byakuya crossing the distance in half a day (which would take normal Shunpo a week); then we keep on getting more and more feats that involve someone or something crossing that distance in an even shorter time span (the bare minimum, according to OBD rules, being a minute).
Haschwalth used "The Key" he possessed to send himself, Yhwach and Uryu (and the Schutzstaffel) up to the Soul King Palace (I once did this for fun).
Mimihagi crossed that distance under its own power with ease; the barrier Yhwach created using Mimihagi's power; the torrents of the Soul King's power crossed that distance as well.
Many of these feats were extrapolated recently by Regicide:
But as of recently, another feat was added to the list, and not one directly related to Mimihagi, or the "free-fall" calc: the beams of light that Lille was scattered into by Shinken Hakkyouken fell down to the Seireitei moments after he was dispersed.
As far as I know, no one has bothered to do anything with the Lille occurrence, and I'm uncertain of how to suggest it plays out because of what the backlash would be if I proposed anything regarding it.
But I suppose nothing will start if I do not say anything, so let me do so.
NOTE: I am proposing this as a suggestion, and an alternative to using the free-fall mechanics proposed by Regicide in his calc. I do not intend to argue his points here, just point out the benefits and flaws of my own suggestion.
I believe it is possible to assume that Lille's dispersion into light and subsequent landing in the Seireitei can be interpreted at face value - the fact they reached Seireitei in such a short time would indicate that the speed of dispersion was at light speed, if people are willing to interpret it in that manner.
This is in part supported by "The Key" Haschwalth used to allow himself, Yhwach and Uryu to reach the Soul King Palace, which contained them all within a shaft of light that reached the Soul King Palace in a short time frame.
Given that the minimal time frame for any distance traveled in the OBD is one minute, if we were to calc Lille's dispersion from the Soul King Palace down to the Seireitei, we can potentially find a distance based on the speed of light.
What would the advantage of using light-speed for Lille's dispersion be?
For starters, a set speed, and from that set speed a distance determined by the minimal time frame (though the nature of the feat may force a smaller time-frame than one minute). It would be simple and direct, with no assumptions or jumping through hoops.
In doing this, the end result would influence every other calc for speed that is based on the distance and time of travel between the Soul King Palace and the Seireitei.
300,000 km/s * 60s = 18,000,000 Km
An astronomical distance, but I can assume that people will argue these values with either a) stating we have already got valid calcs for the distance, or b) arguing that the Soul Society has its own moon that is visible from the Soul King Palace, so it cannot be any further from Soul Society than half the distance from the Moon to the Earth.
A) pertains to Regicide's calcs, and I do understand how Regicide's calcs were accepted because of the methods used for them. I do have some arguments regarding those, but I won't get into them here.
B) Is also self-explanatory - if the distance I got above were indeed true, then it would contradict the actual distance of the moon from the Earth, if we assume Soul Society operates on the same cosmological principles. For all we know, Soul Society and Hueco Mundo could have their celestial bodies situated in a Firmament a la Genesis
The upside would be a set distance for the space between SS and the Soul King Palace at last, but the down-side would be that many would consider anything derived from said distance to be quite ludicrous because of the scale.
Well, discuss away.
NOTE: NOTE: It seems I misappropriated the "minimal assumed time frame", since its normal use is deflationary towards speed calcs, whereas I originally used it for speed over distance.
So I'm going to attempt to go back to one of my older calcs for Ichigo's speed to the Seireitei to see how it would add up to potential time-frames used here.
Before, anyone asks, I fully expect someone to say this cannot be done because it would be "calc-stacking" or something else like that.
Speed derived from SS Bankai Ichigo: MACH 526.7 = 180131 m/s = 180.131 km/s
Speed derived from base SS Ichigo: Mach 263.35 = 90065 m/s = 90.065 km/s
Time Ichigo took to reach Seireitei: 33900 seconds
1. 180.131 km/s * 33900 s = 6,106,440 km
2. 90.065 km/s * 33900 s = 3,053,203 km
Looks like it actually would have been ten seconds, if such scaling was allowed in the Battledome, that is. Not only that, it would actually be consistent with prior calcs done for Bleach, instead of completely doing away with them.
This idea came to me recently, since I just realized that it was a potential speed feat that a) does not rely on the old Soul Society arc calc, b) has an easily determined time frame, and c) one in which the distance can be found as well.
As you all know, when Ichigo arrived in the Seireitei from the Soul King Palace, he had to pierce through the Shakonmaku to enter. These two pages together indicate Ichigo came through right at the top of the Shakonmaku's dome.
Furthermore, we also know it was only a space of a few seconds between when Ichigo passed through the barrier and when he landed. The important thing to know about the height of the Shakonmaku is this: the Shakonmaku does not only extend over the Seireitei, but under it as well, making a sphere around the Seireitei.
With that being the case, the Shakonmaku encompasses the Seireitei, meaning the diameter of the barrier is equal to the Seireitei's own, meaning the radius (in this case, the height of the barrier), is equal to the radius of the Seireitei.
Taking one of my old calcs:
481 km/2 = 240.5 kilometres.
In other words, the current base Ichigo in Shikai cleared that distance from anywhere between 1 second to 3 seconds (a rough estimate based on Candice's dialogue).
Let me do the math on all three possible time frames:
One second = 240.5 km/s or Mach 700
Two Seconds = 120.25 km/s or Mach 350
Three Seconds = 80 km/s or Mach 233.3
NOTE: Before anyone says anything, I know that this calc is subjected to the calculated size of the Seireitei, because the Seireitei's size would affect the size of the Shakonmaku barrier. I simply worked with what I possess at hand.
SECOND NOTE: This process actually places my original speed calc for Ichigo (the one that didn't go through due to it being calc stacking) in between the one and two second time-frame for the speed calculated.
PART 2: This will be a process of elimination part.
Since Kirinji said that normal Shunpo takes a week to reach Seireitei, and Ichigo cleared that distance in 9 hours and 15 minutes (here's the work done), here is what "normal Shunpo" would be compared to high-speed Shunpo based on these numbers divided by 18:
Mach 700/18 = Mach 38.89
Mach 350/18 = Mach 19.45
Mach 233/18 = Mach 13
Out of these three, the only one that is actually faster than Ichigo's Tensa Zangetsu speed in the Soul Society arc is the one second time-frame, making a normal Shunpo for the current Ichigo 1.3 times faster than Ichigo's speed using Tensa Zangetsu back in the Soul Society arc.
This is two years old and I once posted articles discussing it on a related blog a couple years back, but I think it bears discussing.
At the very least, according to this article and a couple of others, apparently Negative Kelvin temperatures would provide the opportunity for combustible engines to have thermodynamic efficiency over 100%. Here's a quote from the article that explains it:
But as the title says, Negative Kelvin is also the hottest temperature known:
From what I have seen, this also makes Negative Kelvin hotter than infinity (or Planck temperature). Here is how they did it in the lab:
In other words, to deal with the issue of adding "infinite energy" to matter to create an inversion of energy states, the scientists established an "upper limit" for the energy.
Basically, this is scientists once again using quantum physics to flip normal physics on its head and slap it in the face.
I know it is very late to do this, but I decided to apply what I found on my original post to Regicide's calc, from which I took reference for my own calc.
Regicide already crunched the numbers for the original meteor's KE, so I'll just modify my numbers for Zaraki's Nozarashi based on the mass he got.
Now, let us see what Zaraki would get for destroying this thing.
90520354850.20 m^3 *1,000,000 = 9.05*10^16 cm^3
9.05*10^16 * 214.35 = 1.94*10^19 Joules =
Gremmy's Meteor - 116.82 gigatons of TNT
Zaraki's Nozarashi - 4.6 Gigatons of TNT
That should be about right.
Once again, the mad scientists in their laboratories go and bend nature to their whim, and achieve what is impossible in the natural world.
5. A real life freeze ray that works by using photons to knock electrons out of orbit, and can be used to create condensation in the atmosphere.
4. NASA is working on three different projects to create real life tractor beams.
3. A shockwave generator that, at 50 metres, can non-lethally knock someone over.
2. Scientists couldn't play around with actual black holes, so they made sonic blackholes instead.
1. Undetectable laser injections that can be used with medicines (and poisons).
If this turns out to be true, then humankind may be getting close to an actual FTL warp drive.
Ladies and gentlemen, our first teaser trailer for the next Dragon Ball Z movie is here:
In the recent chapter, Yhwach and Co travelled to the Royal Realm from the Seireitei within the space of a chapter, and their departure caused a shockwave that toppled buildings within the vicinity and blew people away from that location.
So for interest's sake, I'll try to figure out how fast Yhwach's mode of transportation was.
NOTE: This cannot be used for the movement speed of any character.
Based on the conversations in-chapter, and assuming the distance was actually travelled, it took Yhwach and Co at least two minutes to traverse the distance between Seireitei to the Royal Realm.
Ichigo took 9 hours and 15 minutes to reach the Seireitei from the Royal Realm - 555 minutes.
555/2 = 277.5
In other words, "The Key" that took Yhwach and Co to the Royal Realm had a speed 277.5 times faster than Ichigo's traveling speed.
Multiply that by the speed gotten for Ichigo's feat:
Mach 526.7 x 277.5 = Mach 146,159 = 49,736,446.1 m / s
Here is light-speed: 299 792 458 m / s
This means Yhwach's method of travel to the Royal Realm is 16.6% light-speed.
Relativistic Bleach. kukuku
Twice in one chapter, we have seen Ichigo reacting to attacks of lightning and counter them with an attack of his own.
As we saw in chapter 581, Candice was seen channelling her basic lightning from the storm clouds above, and the latter of the attacks she used in the recent chapter also came from the sky.
NOTE: Chojiro's Koko Gonryuu Rikyuu also generated storm clouds which lightning was channeled down from in an offensive manner.
Given that the lightning is being channeled and used in this manner, would it be possible to say that Ichigo is a lightning-timer?
With the recent chapter of Bleach, Ichigo has finally arrived in the Seireitei from the Royal Realm.
Based on dialogue in chapter 555, it takes normal Shunpo a week to reach the Seireitei from the Royal Realm, but Ichigo told Kirinji that he'd be able to make it in half a day if he went at full speed.
According to Ichibei, from the time Ichigo left for the Seireitei, the Vandenreich invasion had already been on-going for three hours. In the image below, a clock pinpoints the precise time of the Vandenreich's invasion at 5 o'clock, so Ichigo left at 8 P.M.
In chapter 581, another clock tower appears - and Ichigo smashes right into it.
Based on the clock hands on the tower, it appears that Ichigo arrived at around 5:15 A.M. on the second day of the War, meaning he arrived at the Seireitei within 9 hours and 15 minutes of his departure from the Royal Realm.
Based on Regicide's SS Arc Feats blog, the speed for SS Arc Ichigo is Mach 29, and is the minimum speed used for this calc.
As a result, it takes normal, Mach 29 Shunpo a week - 168 hours - to reach the Seireitei, but the new Ichigo took 9 hours and 15 minutes.
This makes current Ichigo 18.162 times faster than his SS counterpart - and is arguably scalable for everyone else who made the journey from the Royal Realm to Seireitei and all Bleach top tiers.
End Result: 29 x 18.162 = MACH 526.7