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1. ### Vecna covers the world in clouds [Critical Role calc]

Who would have though I'd be doing calc about nerdy ass voice actirs playing D&D, but here we are

So in ep.109, Vecna, after ascending to godhood gradually covered the whole of Exandria in dark clouds as a minor miracle.

DM states that it was 12 hours in by the time VM noticed it and it would take roughly 12 more hours until it covered the whole world.

statement can be found here

on 1:31:44

So to figure this out I'll find out just how big is exandria
According to this map of the continent of Tal'Dorei it's lenght from bottom to top is 861.3 miles, or 1386.15 km

Now using the only available (albeit unofficial) map of the planet I can get some measurements

So 52px= lenght of Tal'Dorei = 1386.15 km
therefore the blue line which is half of Exandria's circumference = 130.5 * (1386.15/52)= 3478.7 km
The entire circumference being 6957.4 km
plugging said value into the sphere calculator we get:
r = 1107310 m
V = 5.68717E+18 m3
A = 15408100000000 m2

For the calc itself I'll be using the same bethod used by iwan for a similar feat;
With cloud layer thickness being about 2000 meters, and Exandria's surface are being 15408100000000 m2 then
Cloud volume= 15408100000000*2000= 30816200000000000 m^3
density of air is 1.225 kg/m^3
Mass= 30816200000000000*1.225 = 37749845000000000 kg

Timeframe is roughly 24 hours = 86400 sec
Velocity of cloud expansion = 6957430/86400 = 80.52 m/s

Ke= 0.5*37749845000000000*(80.52)^2 = 122392662708908235308.6955 J, or 29.25 Gigatons of TNT
2. ### How Fast is Kezef the Chaos Hound? [D&D- Forgotten Realms]

This is one fast doggo
and I mean really fast, like "I outrun Gods" fast.

But just how fast does can he go?

According to his entry, he has the ability to use Teleport without error, except he isn't actually teleporting but just running fast
- Champions of Ruin

'Near limitless' isn't very specific, but if Kezef's ability has the same range as a 'teleport without error', which is to say from any point to any other point in the same plane of existence (= universe) then he could just instantly cross a universe using his speed.
http://www.d20srd.org/srd/spells/teleportGreater.htm

Observable universe is 8.8e23 km in diameter
Crossing that in a second is 8.8e26m/s= 2.935 quintillion c

*boi*
3. ### Dragon Fire (D&D calc)

Dragon fire is very intense, how intense?

well, there's these
- Monster Manual 3.5e
- Draconomicon (4e)

The most common component of treasure in D&D is, well gold.
But gold is a metal, it doesn't turn to ash. If so, then what would be considered 'Obliterated' or 'Destroyed' in this case? I think vaporizing makes sense, considering even magical items gets reduced to nothing but a bit of ash.

Gold boils at about 2700 degrees Celsius.

Dragon Fire is shot in the form of a cone with varying size depending of the size of the Dragon.
According to the 5e manual, we have 15 ft. for wyrmlings, 30ft. for youngs, 60ft. for adults and 90ft. for ancients. (A cone of 15 ft. = a cone with such length at its sides)
This diagram in the sourcebooks suggests a 90 degree angle, meaning the base of the cone is sqrt(2)*(cone length).

I'm looking for cone volume, and then I'll be looking for how much energy is needed to heat up that much air to 2700 degrees.

-----------------------
Cone Volumes:
Using Cone calculator and given s and r, we get
Wyrmling: s= 4.57m, r=3.23 m, V=35.32 m^3
Young: s= 9.14m, r= 6.46m, V= 282.57 m^3
Adult: s= 18.28m, r= 12.92m, V= 2260.55 m^3
Ancient: s= 27.43m, r= 19.39m, V= 7638.85 m^3

Air density would be about 1.196 kg/m^3 in a European setting at room temp (20 degrees)
Specific heat of air is 1006 j/kg
I'll use the Q=m*c*t equation

Therefore:
Wyrmling: V=35.32 m^3, m=35.32*1.196=42.24 kg, Q=42.24*1006*2680= 113882419.2 J
Young: V= 282.57 m^3, m=282.57*1.196=337.95 kg, Q=337.95*1006*2680= 911150265.42 J
Adult: V= 2260.55 m^3, m=2260.55*1.196=2703.62 kg, Q=2703.62*1006*2680= 7289169878.224 J
Ancient: V= 7638.85 m^3, m=7638.85*1.196=9136.065 kg, Q=9136.065*1006*2680= 24631561046.768 J

Final Tally:
Wyrmling red dragon's fire breath= 0.027 tons of TNT
Young red dragon's fire breath= 0.217 tons of TNT
Adult red dragon's fire breath= 1.74 tons of TNT
Ancient red dragon's fire breath= 5.88 tons of TNT

This is probably an underestimation of the more powerful dragons, but nice bit feats for young dragons.
4. ### Dungeons & Dragons: Powers of the Planes

In the last entry I talked about cosmology, who actually rules the cosmos?
This one will be about explaining these guys, who make up the top and god- tiers of D&D.
no tl;dr this time since this whole entry is a tl;dr of a much larger explanation.
------------------------

Most commonly, the masters of the Multiverse are the gods.
Gods are on another level of existence from mortals. They even have their own level system based on the concept of 'divine ranks'(DR) that goes from 0 to 21 and above.
Gods have domains of influence in the cosmos, also known as portfolios, and these often determine how high they rank on the ladder.

This ranking system divided the gods to these categories in the 3rd edition:
1. Overdeities (DR 21 and up)
2. Greater Deities (DR 16-20)
3. Intermediate Deities (DR 11-115)
4. Lesser Deities (DR 6-10)
5. Demigods (DR 1-5)
6. Quasi-deities (DR 0)
This was changed in 4th edition, as 4e core setting just had 'gods', without attributing a ranking system at all. but 4e is weird and nobody likes it so specific settings adopted their own systems.

For example, Forgotten Realms switched to this system:
1. Overgod
2. Greater Gods
3. Gods
4. Exarchs
Basically, Gods= intermediate and lesser deities lobbed into one group, and Exarchs became a term to represent all divine servants of a god, be it a demigod or a quasi-god.

It's important to note that the power of each rank isn't uniform across settings

Now for a brief explanation of each rank:

Overgods: These are the top dogs of their settings, and generally the ones that created it.
These gods neither require nor want mortal worship and are so powerful that they are described as gods of gods. The only confirmed Overgod in primary canon that I'm aware of is Lord Ao, the overgod of forgotten realms. Although the High God of Dragonlance also fits the bill, he just hasn't been named as such.
Examples from Myth: that's a tough one actually, possibly Brahman of Hindu myth can be considered an Overgod

Greater Gods: The great powers of the multiverse are often the masters of important portfolios and have millions of worshipers. They often have entire planes of existence as their realms.
Examples from Myth: Zeus, Ra, Amaterasu, Odin, Thor and other prominent gods

(Lesser) Gods: Not quite as powerful as the stronger ones, but still gods in their own right. They control pocket dimension realms within other planes and sometimes answer to a greater power (sometimes they are independent however).
Examples from Myth: Aphrodite, Hermes, Thoth, Heimdall

Exarchs/Demigods: Lesser divinities with limited portfolios. Although in D&D they are still full on gods, just weak ones. They are often ascended mortals or the spawn of greater gods.
Examples from myth: Hercules (post-ascension), deified Pharaohs/Emperors , various local gods

Quasi-deities: Beings with a divine rank of 0. They don't have a portfolio and thus no divine powers, but are still powerful immortal beings. They generally serve the gods.
Examples from myth: Nymphs, Valkyries, Norse giants

Hero Deities: These are actually the mortal spawn of a god. they aren't immortal, but are exceptional for their kind. Often become heroes and sometimes ascend to divinity.
Examples from Myth: Hercules (per-ascension), Perseus, and many other offsprings of zeus, Gilgamesh

Chosen: not deities, these are mortals that have been gifted various powers by a god to serve as a representative of said god on Earth. Sometimes Chosen are turned into quasi-deities, but they are almost always epic level characters/creatures.

Now moving to Non-Deity Powers, these come in many shapes, but are generally the most powerful members of various Elemental/Outsider races.

Primordials: a relatively new addition, primordials are ancient enemies of the gods formed from the multiverse itself that fought them for control. Some primordials are even revered as gods and have a divine rank. They do not need worship to fuel their powers, unlike the gods.

Archfiends: The rulers of the lower planes, divided into three principle races based on alignment:
• Demons: hail from the Abyss, they represent chaotic evil.
Their rulers are the Demon lords, also known as Demon Princes.
• Devils: hail from Hell, AKA Baator, they represent lawful evil.
Their rulers are the Archdevils of the nine hells.
• Yugoloths: neutral evil fiends, neither demon nor devil. Their rulers are the Yugoloth lords.
Celestial Paragons: lords of the good aligned outsiders
• The Celestial Hebdomad: the mightiest of Archons, lawful good aligned celestials.
• Queen Morwel and the Court of Stars: monarchs of the Eladrin, chaotic good celestials
(From 4th edition and onwards the Eladrin are re-classified as Fey, therefore these guys are now Archfey)
• Talisid and his champions: lords of the guardinals, neutral-good celestials
Angels can be of any good alignment depending of what god they serve, they don't have paragons (at least not in primary canon).

Archfey: especially powerful fey creatures who serve as the lords of the Feywild (although the court of stars resides in Arborea, or at least used to). The main two factions of Fey are known as the Seelie court led by the Summer Queen Titania and the Unseelie court led by the Queen of Air and Darkness. Other Archfey include Satyr lords and especially powerful hags.

Archomentals: also known as the Elemental Princes, these are powerful elemental entities that usually come in pairs of good and evil (for the main four elements at least). Elemental princes also exist for the Quasi-elemental demi-planes such as ice, smoke or ooze. They are not to confused with the Elemental Lords who are Gods/Primordials and the actual rulers of the elemental planes (and also much stronger).

Slaad Lords: unique powerful Slaadi, they are formed from the birthing stone in Limbo to serve an unknown purpose. Very few are known by name, but regardless they are very powerful.

Primus: the prime Modron, this is the mechanical ruler of Mechanus the true Lawful plane.
There is only ever one, and in the event that he would die a Secundus Modron is immidietly elevated to replace him. It is said that while in Mechanus Primus possess power comparable to a god.

The Dark Powers: these entities rule over pocket dimensions within the Shadowfel known as the Domains of Dread, and are all kinds of evil. They cannot escape from their domains but are otherwise in full control of them. The most well known of the Dark Powers is count Strahd von Zarovich, the first vampire (at least after the retcon...).

Elder Evils: a very heterogeneous group of ancient evil beings that vary from fallen demon-lords to eldritch beasts from the far realm to undead planets.

Abstract Entities: Not much is known of them, except that they are ancient and far more powerful than gods (outside of overgods of course). The most known ones of this group are the Lady of Pain and the Serpent.

and...that's pretty much it.
5. ### Dungeons & Dragons: Cosmology

In this entry I'll talk about the cosmology of D&D, which is somewhat of a weird issue
like before, I'll leave a tl;dr at the end for the lazy folk.
--------------------------
Okay, a few basic term that I should get out of the way before doing this:

Planes of Existence= a self contained space-time construct. Usually of infinite size. Basically a universe.

Demiplanes= work like normal Planes but are typically of finite size and often contained within other planes.

Divine Domain/Realm= a plane, or a demiplane under the absolute control of a deity. For weaker deities they often have realms within larger planes. But the strongest deities can have entire planes as their realms.

now, standard D&D cosmology often has these components in it:

The Prime Material Plane: This is the world of the living, where "Earth" (however its called within the setting) is located. Its equivalent to our universe essentially.

Transitive Planes: Planes that run in parallel to the material plane and can be accessed through magic. Such are the Plane of Shadows, the Astral plane, the Etheral plane and as of 4e the Feywild.

Inner planes: also known as the Elemental planes, each one dominated by a certain element.
Typically these were the planes of Water, Fire, Earth, Air and Positive/Negative energy.
Creatures from these planes are dubbed Elementals.

Outer Planes: Various otherworldly domains that, in classic D&D represented various alignments such as good/evil and law/chaos. Heaven, Hell, the Abyss and many others count among them.
Creatures from these planes are dubbed Outsiders.

The Far Realm: a place outside the multiverse, hypothesized to possibly be another multiverse with its own laws of nature. This is where eldritch abominations dwell.

These terms are mainly taken from Great Wheel module of the cosmos (on that later)
there are other models and of course the mess that is 4th edition.

But the main issue I want to bring up is the question: "Just how big is D&D verse?"
and this is were we run into contradictions.

The 5th edition sourcebooks paint the same picture that the Spelljammer setting is based on.
According to those, all the various worlds in D&D like Toril (Forgotten Realms), Oerth (Greyhawk), Krynn (Dragonlance), etc. are all part of the same Prime Material plane with the other planes of existence surrounding it. Suggesting that D&D is one multiverse.

This is actually immediately contradicted in the very same book where the following is stated:
- Player's Handbook (5e)

This, and other sources suggests that there are countless alternate Material planes in which various settings take place, surrounded by the other planes of realty as established.

The problem with this explanation is that we run into a lot of contradictions.
If there is one multiverse containing a single or infinite material planes then surely the outer planar beings are the same across all setting due to being just one of them, right? no.
Characters such as Asmodeus or Lolth have different backstories from different settings, in the case of the latter authors have outright said Core and FR versions of her are separate.

And of course, the most glaring contradiction. If D&D is a single multiverse, then why does each setting has its own cosmology, often with different plains and gods to rule them?

I'll expand on this now by giving examples.

Let's start by reviewing the core setting and then compare it to other settings.

Up to 3rd edition, as I mentioned in my previous blog, core setting was basically the Greyhawk setting and it used the "Great Wheel" model for cosmology:
Spoiler:

- from 3.5e DM Guide

As you can see, in the center we have the prime and transitive planes, around them the elemental planes and on the outer rim of the wheel the outer planes.

In 4th edition, core (AKA the points of light setting) adopted a new model, the World Axis:
Spoiler:

- from 4e Manual of the planes

In this model, we have the material and its parallel planes. above is the astral sea and its dominions (a replacement to the outer planes) and below the elemental chaos (the elemental planes+limbo).

And finally, 5th edition reverts back and gives us the Great Wheel 2.0
Spoiler:

- from 5e Player's Handbook

Well greyhawk hasn't changed from the great wheel model like Core did.

Let's look at Forgotten Realms.
Prior to 3rd edition, forgotten realms used the great wheel standard model.
However, they made their own model of the multiverse in 3rd edition called 'The World Tree'
Spoiler:

- from the 'Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting' for 3e

Here we see the material and transitive plains for the trunk of the world tree, with the elemental planes at its roots and outer planes as its branches. Note that most of these planes are different/absent from previous models.

Following the transit to 4th edition, Forgotten Realms changed to the World Axis model
Spoiler:

Not an official map, but it illustrates the locations of various domains that exist within the Forgotten Realms (From the 4e Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide) and not within the core setting (as the Manual of the Planes describes).

Following the Second Sundering, Abier and Toril are once again separate and the Cosmos was re-arranged into the new Great Wheel, thus making FR multiverse similar to Core 5e's multiverse.

Now looking at Eberron.
This is the model for 3rd edition:
Spoiler:

As you can see, very different then the other 3rd edition models.

In 4th edition, they adopted something similar to the World Axis, but as you can see, it is still pretty different than core, with a different number of planes and such:
Spoiler:

Like FR, this is the latest official model for Eberron.

Finally, let's have a look at the world of Krynn from the Dragonlance setting (and we'll end it at that since I can only go over so many settings...)
The last official one is the 3rd edition model, which is quite different than what we've seen thus far
Spoiler:

- from the Dragonlance Campaign setting for 3e

This is reminiscent of the great wheel, but more like a sphere of overlapping planes.
And of course the number and names of the planes is different.

By now I'm sure you've noticed that no two settings look the same, not even in the same edition.
So with all these discrepancies how can D&D be a single multiverse? well, it can't.

The best explanation I can give you is that each setting is its own local multiverse within the larger and infinite multiverse of D&D (or megaverse, if you will) having its own structure, planes and deities, with there existing multiple parallel versions of certain characters between settings.
All of these settings are however, still connected (likely all material planes are connected in some way) and travel between them is possible through certain means.

tl;dr
Each campaign setting in D&D is its own self contained multiverse with its own continuity. All of which exist within the larger world of D&D, but are still connected as to allow travel between them.

In the next blog I'll talk about the great powers of the multiverse.
6. ### Dungeons & Dragons: Cannonicity

So, as you know I've been doing a lot of calculations for D&D as of late, and I figured I would at some point make a respect thread to compile all the feats and lore and stuff.

But in order for that to make sense, I'll make a few blogs to make sense out of some stuff.
This one, in particular will deal with different levels of canon in D&D.
I'll make a few more later this week to deal with other things like Cosmology, High powers of the verse, etc.

There's a tl;dr at the bottom if you can't be arsed to read all of this
-------------------

So, the first thing that I should clear up is that D&D isn't so much a franchise, or verse as it is a system to build franchises upon.

That said you can roughly divide material regarding D&D into four groups:
• "Core" material
• Specific settings
• 3rd Party
• Homebrew
To make sense of that we have to ask a few questions.

What is a 'Campaign Setting'?

The Campaign setting is the world in which the game is played.
Most settings have a few things in common like the existence of a Material plane as well as other planes of existence, the presence of monsters in the world, existance of gods, etc.

A campaign setting can be entirely made up by the DM, however there are some settings that have been given "official" support and status by Wizards of the Coast (the guys who make D&D).
These settings include: Greyhawk, Forgotten Realms, Eberron, Dragonlance, Mystara, Spelljammer and others.

Its important to note that each of this is its own continuity, and even though some characters can appear in more than one, scaling between them is shoddy to say the least.

If you don't wish to use an established setting and just want to play by the basic rulebooks then you are essentially playing the "core setting".

Which brings us to...

What is 'Core'?

Core = The essentials.
Player's handbook, DM guide, Monster Manual and all the various supplements to them (like manual of the planes, complete divine, various compendiums, etc.)
All the sourcebooks not pertaining to a specific setting are considered 'Core'.
For this reason, Core material is generally canon to most settings unless stated otherwise.

To expand on this we have to get into Editions.
Every once in a while the game system goes through revisions and a new Edition of the game is put out.
'Core setting' usually changes along with that.
The Core setting was pretty much based on the Greyhawk setting (which is the original setting in D&D) upto and including 3rd edition, its cosmology, pantheon, famous figures, everything was lifted off of Greyhawk.
This changed with 4th edition.
4th edition overhauled everything to the extreme, mainly borrowing from Forgotten Realms (which has become the most popular setting). To be honest, 4th edition Core is so different many players consider it it's own beast (it even has a fan name- "Points of light setting").
WotC have also basically retconned all of it with 5th edition anyway...
Nowadays with 5th edition D&D there is no official setting Core is modeled after. The player's handbook and DM guide for this edition just give a layout and leave much of the things that make a setting, such as the world itself, pantheon and such for the DM to decide.
WotC are however pushing mainly the Forgotten Realms as their go-to setting.

So to sum it up, Primary canon thus far is Core material+official settings

What is 3rd party material?

Exactly what it sounds like.
These are supplements made by 3rd parties using the D&D system.
Stuff made by 3rd party isn't canon to the things I wrote about above, but all those materials are canon to stuff made by 3rd party.
3rd party material is were crazy things like Neutronium Golem comes from.
It's sort of like the EU of D&D if you will.

...Homebrew?

That's the easiest to explain. Homebrew is everything the DM/Players make up as they go.
You made a new race for the game? and new world? a new pantheon of gods?
In a vs setting including Homebrew would get you into crazy fanfic territory, but it's still relevant in the meta level I guess (yes, there's that...).

tl;dr
• Campaign setting = worlds to play in of which there are official ones supported by WotC
• Core Material = all the stuff in the basic rulebooks and its supplements
• 'Core setting' = The default setting presented in the core material, used to be Greyhawk before 4e, then became weird, now with 5e there isn't really a default setting
• Primary canon = Core+official settings
• No you can't scale between settings, but feats from Core material can apply to most
• 3rd party= secondary canon = sorta like an EU
• Homebrew= stuff people make up at home

And that's it for now, I'll use my next blog to discuss cosmology, which is another headache.
7. ### Atropos drains a planet [D&D calc]

Atropos, the world born dead is a sentient, undead moonlet capable of draining planets of life for whatever reason an undying celestial objects has to consume planets I guess.

-Elder Evils (3.5e)

It is capable of consuming all positive (meaning living) energy within a planet, and has in fact done so to an earth-sized planet in the Forgotten Realms setting

In order to leave a planet "an empty husk" I'm guessing what Atropos devours is biomass, converting it to positive energy that is instantly negated by the negative energy fueling him, as the text suggests.

How much biomass is on Earth? according to wikipedia between 1 to 4 Trillion tons of carbon.
Converting an average of 2.5 trillion tons into energy via mass-energy equation would yield:

E=m*c^2= (2.5e15 kg)*(299792458 m/s)^2= 2.246e32 J, or 53.68 Zettatons of TNT, practically planet level since this is only an average.
---------------
While we're at it, I'd like to figure out the GBE of Atropos
700 miles are 1120 km, giving it a radius of 560km
It's made out of rock of some sort, so I'll use the density of granite to determine mass.

A sphere with a radius of 560,000m would have a volume of 7.35619E+17 m^3
applying a density of 2700 kg/m^3 we get a mass of 1986171300000000000000 kg.

GBE= 3*G*M^2/5*R = [3*6.67408e(-11)*(1986171300000000000000)^2]/(5*560000)= 2.82e26 J
or, 67.4 Petatons , continent level+

Final Tally:
Atropos consumes a planet ≈ 53.68 Zettatons of TNT
Atropos' GBE = 67.4 Petatons of TNT
8. ### GODSPEED [Forgotten Realms / D&D calcs]

Time for some cosmic tier shit
------------------
Spoiler:

- Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide (4e)

Dendar The Night serpent is a primordial and elder evil entity that feeds on nightmares.
As stated above in the ancient past she was large enough to swallow the Sun and plunge the world into darkness, untill beaten by the god Ubato and a new sun was constructed.

Current Dendar isn't nearly as large, but she is prophesied to do the whole sun eating again in the end of days once she eats enough nightmares to be this large. Ubato would then once again fight it. (which sparked a whole cult of fanatics scarificing themselves to fight the serpent to keep it expanding energy instead of eating)

I wanna know exactly how large she actually was, and more importantly, how fast.

So her depowered size would help us with that:
- Champions of Ruin (3.5e)

Adult dragons are typically of the 'Huge' size category, which is 16-32ft in height, so 24ft on average.
Meaning that Dendar's lenght is 12.5 times the size of her mouth.

Diameter of the sun is 1,391,400km, so Dendar's length at that time would have been roughly 17,392,500 km.

For Speed, I'll scale her (pun non-intentional) off the fastest sneko irl (and the only one there are speed stats of on google for some reason), the Black Mamba.
Black Mamba's can go at 11 km/hr, meaning they can cover their body length (3m) in one second.

So by that logic Dendar would be going at 17392500000 m/s which is 58c, FTL.

2. The Wars of Light and Darkness
Spoiler:

As is well known and repeated in several sources the Material plane came to existence by the twin goddesses Selune and Shar. They then got into a fight over conflicting views on how the universe should run. What's interesting is this illustration from the Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting for 3rd edition that depicts them as much larger than star-systems

Now doing some pixel scaling from the face, as to avoid "is it in the backround?" issues
I wanted to see what is Selune's arm's length, since it is basic for a person to move its own arms' length in about one second.

For interstellar distance I'll be using the distance from the Sun to our closest star, Proxima Centauri, which is 4.24 light years.

Interstellar distance = 4 px = 4.24 light years
Arm length= 425 px = 450.5 light years

450.5 light years are 4261968044200000000 meters, so
v= 4261968044200000000m/s, or 14,216,395,144.27c ,MFTL+

This is probably an underestimation of their speed too since there are stars that seem closer back there than the ones I chose to scale.

Final Tally:
Shadow Epoch Dendar's movement speed > 58c
Shar/Selune's casual movement speed > 14,216,395,144.27c
9. ### Vhostym creates an eclipse [Forgotten Realms/D&D calc] [Reuploaded]

------------------
Man, this calc was practically begging to be made, just read this

Basically Vhosy wanted to create an Eclipse by pulling a shard of the Moon closer to Toril (Earth).
And the book gives us almost all the details we need.

So lets start with distance, its stated he needs to position it within a 1/20 of the Lunar distance, In forgotten realms the parameters of the moon is stated in the 3rd edition Campaign Setting:

>2000 miles in diameter is >3200 km across which is nearly identical with irl moon (3,474 km diameter) so I'll just assume they're the same.

The lunar distance is stated as 20,000 miles = 32,000 km

Moving that 19/20 of the way is 30400000m.

Now for time-frame, he says it will be in position before Dawn and its already night time for quite a while when the spell is cast
so I think a fair assumption would be that he starts at Midnight.
The spell takes place in the Sea of Fallen Stars which is comparable to the Mediterranean, where Dawn can come anywhere between 6:00~7:00 am
So I'll use 6 hours as the time-frame.

Therefore;
v=d/t=30400000/21600= 1407.4 m/s or mach 4.135

Now as for mass, we a given a diameter of 50 leagues, but as I've found out, a league can mean a shit ton of things, so I'll use the also stated diameter of 1/20 of the moon, which is 173.7 km.
This gives us a volume of 2.74409E+15 m^3 for the Tear of Selune
Density of the Moon= 3.344 gr/cc or 3344 kg/m^3

Mass of the Tear= 2.74409E+15*3344= 9176236960000000000 kg

Ke= 0.5*m*v^2= 0.5*(9176236960000000000)*(1407.4)^2 = 9.0880292810735648e24 J or 2.172 Petatons of TNT

Continent level

Keep in mind that this is what an epic mage can do with sufficient prep, not even a God or somethin
10. ### D&D calculations compilation

A bunch of quick ones I did:

1. Call lightning
Spoiler:

http://engl393-dnd5th.wikia.com/wiki/Call_Lightning

Meaning the spell can either give you control over a natural storm, or make a storm cloud for you.
Either way the spell can rain down cloud to ground lightning, that are dodge-able.

What's interesting is that if you choose to spawn a cloud it appears 100 ft, or 30m above ground.
If we are having an average 1.7m tall character attempting to dodge it, they'd have to move 1.5m (5 ft.) to get out of the way before the lightning clears 28.3m of distance.

Average lightning speed = 97,536 m/s
t=d/v= 28.3/97536 = 2.9015e(-4) sec
v=d/t= 1.5/2.9015e(-4) = 5169.75 m/s, or Mach 15.2

This also doubles as a dc feat since lightnings are naturally building level in dc.

2. Disintegrate
Spoiler:

http://engl393-dnd5th.wikia.com/wiki/Disintegrate

The spell can reduce a 10 foot cube of any ordinary material to dust.
This includes the likes of steel and glass

Pulverization of steel = 310-1000 J/cc
Pulverization of Glass = 1000 J/cc

V= 10 ft^3 = 283168.466 cc
E= 283168.466*1000= 283168466 J, or 0.067 tons of TNT
Small-building level.

3. Proctiv’s Move Mountain (Epic Spell in Forgotten Realms)
Spoiler:

- Player's Guide to Faerun (3.5e)

Pretty specific.
From what we know this spell was used to make flying cities, that went pretty high (considering they were destroyed almost completely when they fell and could traverse mountainous territory)
So as a conservative estimate I'll show strong you need to be to lift one up a kilometer.

Volume of said mountain is 4289320000 m^3
density of granite rock = 2700 kg/m^3
m=4289320000*2700= 11581164000000 kg

Pe= m*g*h= 11581164000000*9.8*1000 = 113495407200000000 J
or, 27.126 Megatons of TNT, City-level

4. The Avatar of Gilgeam throws a dragon turtle
Spoiler:

- Powers and Pantheons

According to the Monster Manual, Dragon turtles weight between 8000 to 32000 pounds, so using these as a low and high end.
8000 pounds = 3628.72 kg , 32000 pounds = 14514.88 kg
afaik OBD considers a City to be at least 10km in diameter, so I'll use that.

From the Ballistic trajectory calculator I can find the height it went up to and make a graph.
with an angle of 45 degrees and fiddling with speed until I get that 10km mark

nets us a speed of 313.2 m/s

Low end: Ke=0.5*m*v^2= 0.5*3628.72*(313.2)^2 = 177978265.2864 J, or 0.042 tons of TNT
High-end: Ke=0.5*m*v^2= 0.5*14514.88*(313.2)^2 = 711913061.1456 J, or 0.17 tons of TNT
Small-building level, eh

Final Tally:
Dodging Call lightning = Mach 15.2
Disintegrate dc = 0.067 tons of TNT
The avatar of Gilgeam throws a dragon turtle= 0.042~0.17 tons of TNT
Netherese Archwizards create flying cities= 27.126 Megatons of TNT
11. ### Ragnorra's Slam Dunk [D&D calc]

So, the Elder Evil Ragnorra is D&D's version of Brood mother, sorta.
She travels around the multiverse, occasionally crossing into the Material plane, in which case she'd very much like to crash land on a world and take it over.

The book actually provides some things that make this crash-land calcable

- Elder Evils [3.5e]

The important thing to take from this passage is that her landing is like a freakin asteroid, leaving a 30 mile long crater.

We also have this:
So her size as she lands is a mile in diameter.

What's I'm going to do is fiddle with the Asteroid Impact Crater Calculator to get the speed at which she was traveling and the energy of impact (since we know she survives this, albeit barely).

So we have a diameter of a mile=1600m, and we know Ragnorra is made out of flesh so I'll use average density of a human body for this, which is 1.062 gr/cm^3.
I'll plug in an arbitrary angle of 45 degrees for impact and change the speeds untill I can get a crater with a diameter of 30 miles = 48 km.

And here are the results

So the Final Tally:
Ragnorra's crusing speed = 376,000 m/s, or about Mach 1105
Ragnorra's impact yield = 38.33 Teratons of TNT

MHS+ and country level, surprisingly sits well with the powerscaling actually
12. ### The Simbul flings a mountain (Forgotten Realms/D&D calc)

Some more of the shit epic mages can do in D&D

-Elminster in Hell

To put this simply, the Simbul, an epic level wizard could fight off a company of high level devils, open a portal to the prime material all the while using a spell to fling a mountain halfway across Hell to use as a tactical nuke that shakes the entire layer.

To calc this feat I'll need three things: Size of that rock, distance and timeframe

Distance is easy, its stated she boosted the thing from halfway across Avernus, the first Hell

From this we can infer that the radius of Avernus is 6607 miles, or 10633.17 km
So planetary proportions.

Next, for timeframe, the Devils note sensing a strange magic right before Simbul showed up.
They then chase her for a while until the mountain drops, noting that this must be what they sensed . So a matter of minutes, not hours from the rock to travel there.

I'll be using 10 minutes as a conservative estimate.

Now for size.
Narration states that a mere fragment of the rock is the size of a castle.
How large is a castle? well, D&D is based on high-medieval period Europe, England specifically.
So lets see, how large were castles back then by using Warwick castle in England as a model

From pixel scaling I did (couldn't find an exact figure on google), the area of the castle seems to be roughly 1 Km^2.
Also the towers of the castle range in 40-44 m for height.

So what I'll do is model the mountain as a pyramid that is x10 times the castle.

So we have a pyramid that is 10 km^2 in base and 400m tall.

Said pyramid would have a volume of 1333340000 m^3
Density of granite rock is 2700 kg/m^3
So, m=2700*1333340000= 3600018000000 kg

Now for speed
v=d/s= 10633.17 km/ 10 mins = 17721.95 m/s

Using a Ballistic Trajectory calculator, I can find the initial speed that fling this thing that far

Giving us a speed of 10,213 m/s, or Mach 30.01

Ke= 1/2*m*v^2= 0.5*3600018000000*(10213)^2= 187750602948321000000 J
or, 44.87 gigatons of TNT
13. ### Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer Calcs

Figured I'd do this since this is the most OP CBM out there;
You can watch the movie here:
http://putlocker.is/watch-fantastic-4-rise-of-the-silver-surfer-online-free-putlocker.html

Feats directory:
1. Surfer flies to Earth= 2:03
2. Surfer Freezes shit= 3:05
3. SS kills Galactus= 1:21:40
---------------------

1. Silver Surfer flies to Earth:
Spoiler:

Fairly easy one, we can see the shot paning over the moon at 2:03
then we see Surfer coming from the distance, so he'd have to be at least as far as the moon at that point (he's farther but we don't know by how much)
regardless we first see him at 2:10 and by 2:20 he's already in Earth.

So he flew the earth-moon distance in under 10s.

v= 384,400,000m/10s = 38440000 m/s = 0.128c
relativistic

2. Silver surfer freezes Giza
Spoiler:

SS could make it hail in Giza, a desert by just passing by, I'll see what I can get out of that

In 3:15 we can see that he froze everything from the great Sphinx to the horizon
now from ground level, the Horizon is typically visible for 4.7 km
so the are he froze would be roughly a circle with that diameter.

Area of a circle= pie*r^2= 3.14*(2350)^2= 17349445.4295 m^2

He frozen it up all the way to the clouds since he made it hail, so at least around 2km tall area

Air volume= 17349445.4295*2000= 34698890858.9 m^3

To get air density I'll use this calculator and input average values for the area
with a temp of about 29 degrees and 55% humidity we get
Air density= 1.155 kg/m^3

Air mass= V*density= 34698890858.9*1.155= 40077218942.029 kg
Specific heat of air is 1006 j/kg
Q=m*c*t= 40077218942.029*1006*29= 1169212785414743.911 J
or 279.448 kilotons of TNT, just by flying around

3. Silver Surfer destroys Galactus
Spoiler:

Ah, yes. The big one.

So lets see just how big is this space turd.

Okay, so I split him up to a sphere (blue), and a cylinder (red) of space turdness.
Earth's diameter= 139 px = 12,742 km
Sphere diameter= 479 px = 43,909.48 km
Cylinder diameter= 577 px = 52,893.05 km
Cylinder height= 597 px = 54,726.43 km

Sphere volume= 4.43e+13 km^3
Cylinder volume= 1.2e+14 km^3

Galactus' volume= 164300000000000 km^3 = 1.643e+23 m^3

So what is Galactus made of? I figured the closest thing to a space turd would be actual space dust
going off of this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_dust
we're looking at a bulk density of 10^-6/m^3

So
Galactus' mass= 1.643e+23 m^3*10^-6= 1.643e+17 kg
That's one heavy space turd

Now for dispersion speed;
From viewing the video frame by frame the explosion crossed Earth's diameter within 2 frames
so that's 0.08 sec

V= 12,742,000/0.08 = 159275000 m/s which is 0.53c

plugging this into the relativistic KE calculator we get a result of 2.662e+33 J
which is 636.233 Zettatons of TNT

Final Tally:
Silver Surfer flies to Earth = 0.128c
Silver Surfer freezes Giza= 279.448 kilotons
Silver Surfer destroys Galactus= 636.233 zettatons

SS is still Herald level even as a nerfed movie version
14. ### Magneto manipulates the world's metals (X-Men Apocalypse)

Finally watched this mediocre flick
time to calc the most impressive feat here

scene for refrence

-----------------------------------
Okay so, what magneto does as is explanied is extracting metals from earth and the surface and fucking shit up.

From the scene and how it's described he seem to be slowley moving stuff around, but the speed seems constant.

So to calc this I'll figure out the mass he's dealing with and the speed that he's moving it in
Speed can be calced from the scene, as for mass I couldn't find data on how much metal there's on the surface, I have found data on the metals in the crust though, and they seem to significantly outnumber those that humans have used so it shouldn't bring the result down that much.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundance_of_elements_in_Earth's_crust
The metals we care about are the ferromagnetic ones meaning iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinum, terbium and dysprosium

from the chart we get:
Fe= 56,300 ppm
Co= 25 ppm
Ni= 84 ppm
Gd= 6.2 ppm
Tb= 1.2 ppm
Dy= 5.2 ppm

In total= 56421.6 ppm
ppm= parts per million, with 10,000 ppm = 1% of the weight of earth's crust
so 56,421.6 ppm = 5.64216% of earth's crust

The mass of earth's crust is 2.6x10^22 kg
So we are dealing with 1.4669616x10^21 kg of metal

Now for speed, lets look at how fast was the Sydney opera house breaking off

Building height = 225 px = 65 m
Base level = 45 px = (65/225)*45= 13m

Base level= 13m = 49 px
Total height= 325 px = 86.22 m

These two images show the difference that 5 seconds in video made

So it was moved 21.22 m in that time span
v=21.22/5= 4.244 m/s

Total kinetic energy of Magneto:
Ke= 0.5*m*v^2 = 0.5*(1.4669616e21)*(4.244)^2 = 1.32111158345088e22 J or 3.157 Teratons
Small country level

Apocalypse and Phoenix scale off this too
15. ### Mizael Flies to the Moon (Yu-Gi-Oh ZeXaL)

Yes ZeXaL is the shittiest YGO series
but also the strongest, and this feat needs calcing

http://kiss-anime.ch/Watch/75694/yu-gi-oh-zexal-ii/episode-133/
15:07-15:14

Basically, kaito goes to the moon on a shuttle and Mizael follows
except Mizael does it a lot lot faster

The scene makes it seems like Mizael went from Earth to the moon in like 5 seconds
but from the dialogue we can infer that Orbital 7 picked up on his signal after he was closing in on the moon (unless you want to assume he can pick him up the second he leaves earth...)

So Earth-Moon distance is off the table
I figured a better alternative would be to assume Orbital picked him up as he entered the Moon's atmosphere.

According to NASA this is how it's organized

so we can see that we can talk about the tighter and more loose atmosphere
I'll use them as a high and low end.

Tight atmosphere distance= roughly 3 Lunar radii