# Edward Nygma's blog

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1. ### MCU Upgrades: Do Blogs Get More Attention?

---Nobody Will Ever Laugh at MCU Quicksilver Again---

Earth to camera.

2×atan(1100÷(1280÷tan(70÷2)))
= 62.07408209°
= 10,588,000 meters

Sun to camera.
2×atan(255÷(1280÷tan(70÷2)))
= 15.88240103°
= 4,659,700,000 meters

Distance from Sun to Earth = 149,600,000,000
Distance traveled = 149,600,000,000 - 4,659,700,000 - 10,588,000 = 144,940,300,000 meters
Time = 29frames = 1.126s
Velocity = 144,940,300,000 / 1.126 = 128,721,403,197.15... m/s = 429.36...C

The extra hammer distance was < 50 meters, so I didn't bother.

---Space Laser---

As @GoldenHeart points out in his meta thread; after being active for several minutes, the Bifrost begins to warp space and pull in stars. Thor, of course, breaks the Bifrost at the end of Thor 1. Fenrir and Hulk also take large chunks out of it while fighting in Ragnarok.

There might be some arguments about the exact nature of this singularity. But whatever it is, it can't generate more energetic effects (ie moving stars) than the event that created it. So it's safe to say that, over the course of the singularity's formation, the Bifrost channels the grand total GBE of the moving stars.

tl;dr: Stars < Singularity < Biforst, regardless of what the singularity is.

The bridge's durability would be something like the X * Y / Z = Bifrost durability in joules per second

X = Smallest star GBE
Y = Number of stars
Z = Time the Bifrost beam was active

The Bifrost is active for 390 seconds. I can't find a clip on YT. They all start right after Thor arrives, a couple of minutes after Loki powers up the beam. It's also near impossible to get an exact count on these stars - especially with the debris flying around in frame - but my recounts average around half-a-dozen in motion.

GBE of the smallest star = 9.998 ninatons * 6 / 390 = 0.1538 tenatons (Large Planet level)

Add as many stars as you want. You'd need 390 to get out of Large Planet level (ya know, cause division), and there clearly aren't nearly 400 stars in motion.

---"In the stars" ( Golden)---

Golden also confirmed that Odin did, in fact, turn his wife into stars. How many? I dunno, and I'm not going through and numbering them. The prelude strongly implies it was at least two (they are shown in motion), and I noticed at least two missing from Golden's side-by-side.

Mass of the least massive star: 7% sun's mass = 7 * (1.989 × 10^30) / 100 = 1.3923e+29kg
Mass-Eneregy of two stars = 2.5026737e+46 or 250.3 Foe (Solar Systen level)

Totals:

Mjolnir flight speed: 429 c, FTL
Bifrost durability: 153.8 tenatons, Large Planet level
Odin makes stars: 250.3 Foe, SS level
2. ### Teen Titans Speed Calcs: Lightspeed in the Episode "Lightspeed"

Fastest Boy Alive

Feat starts at 0:39

During Kid Flash's first appearance - in an episode aptly titled Lightspeed - KF makes a show of his powers by running to and from France in less than a second. 8/24th or 0.33 seconds to be exact.

Distance to France form California = 8963.42km
Time = 8/24 frames or 0.33s

Speed = (8963.42 * 1000) * 2 / 0.33 = 325942545.45 m/s or 1.08 c

The math here is so fucking on point that I don't think anyone will convince me that this wasn't on purpose. Exactly lightspeed in an episode titled lightspeed. Well played writers, well played.

8,963.42km * 1000 = 8,963,420m
8,963,420 * 2 = 17,926,840m
17,926,840 / 0.33 = 54,323,757.57 m/s or 0.18 c (clearly i misplaced a decimal somewhere. )

DISCLAIMER

Spoiler:
Yes. I understand that Kid Flash technically could have run to any hat shop or baker in the world. But I feel like ignoring the context clues - specifically that he is showing off - would be pretty disingenuous. Would have been pretty anti-climactic if Jinx had been all "you got that from the baker on 5th".

Mas y Menos Checking In

After handing out the communicators, Robin calls for a check-in. Mas y Menos make the call for both the western and eastern tower - running the distance between them in exactly 3.0416 seconds. Or 3 seconds and 1 frame.

Last time Mas y Menos got calcd Steel City was pegged as being in PA. So that's what I'll use here.

Distance from CA to PA = 3860.21 km
Time: 3.0416 s

(3860.21 * 1000) * 2 / 3.0416 = 2538275.9 m/s or Mach 7459.15

https://www.distancefromto.net/
3. ### Flash Outruns Speedforce Lightning (w/ Agent9149 & Siba Miyuki) + random bit feats

With the real math out of the way, I can go do some doodles in paint and get the final number.

Speed of lightning bolt (Agent & Shiba): Mach 17.26
Barry overtakes bolt: Mach 383 - Mach 1645

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bit Feat #1: The Flash-er

After escaping from the Speed Force, Barry runs three hundred miles, in about six seconds, with his lightning bolt hanging out. Cause apparently you don't get to keep your clothes while existing outside of normal space-time. You know, depsite noone else having ever emerged naked from the Speed Force. Not even Barry when he went in naked. All I'm saying is that someone was looking for an excuse to get Grant Gustin's clothes off. Ok. Naked Grant rant over.

482803 meters / 6 seconds = 80,467.16 or Mach 236.46

Bit Feat #2: Recon

During the Earth X crossover, Barry runs 44.6km to scout out the enemy base; 22.3 each way. The trip takes him almost exactly 0.5 seconds.

44600 / 0.5 = 89200 m/s or Mach 262.12

Bit Feat #3: False Alarm

This one is actually from a deleted scene. So its validity is up for debate. But it's a bit feat, so I don't really care either way.

Ralph accidently sets off the Star Labs alarm while Barry and Iris are on their tropical honeymoon. It isn't exactly stated where Barry and Iris are coming from, but their atire makes it pretty clear we are supposed to assume Hawaii. So we'll go with that.

It takes about 9 seconds for Barry to arrive after Ralph hits the button. Distance from Chicago to Hawaii is 7247.56km. 7247560 / 9 = 805284.4 or Mach 2,366.46....in flip-flops
4. ### Size and Destruction of MCU Asgard

Everything is in proper order within the slideshow. The scaling goes; Chris height --> Chris width --> Bifrost width --> Bifrost length & palace height --> Asgard.

Diameter of Asgard: 21.89 km
Max thickness: 1.25 km
Total volume (assuming uniform thickness): 470.43 km^3

As most know by now, Asgard got exploded in Thor: Ragnarok by a flaming, horny dude named Surtr.

None of the cams are clean enough to calc any part of the explosion itself (luminosity, ke, et) but we can get a low-end using the violent puverlization of rocks.

200j/cc * 4.7e17cm^3 = 9.4e19 joules or 22.46 gigatons.

Blowing up an island is island level, go figure.
5. ### Kara Burns a Fat Hole in the Ground (DCTV)

(2:35)

The device falls for almost exactly 2 seconds before exploding. This calculator tells me that means the device fell about 20m.

I swear that I scaled that arm in another picture, I just forgot to save it. I'll do it again, if it's that important.

Average Density of Earth's Crust: 2.7 g/cm^3
Volume: 0.8 x 3.14^3 x 20 = 40.21 m^3
Mass: 40 x 2700 = 108,567,000 g
Specific Heat of Granite: 0.79 j/g K
Boiling Point: 2000 K (subtracting ~400 K for ambient heat)
Latent Heat of Fusion for Granite: 0.1 j/gm K
Vaporization of Rock: 25,700 j/cm3

Temperature Change

108,567,000 x 0.79 x 2000 = 128651895000 joules or 41 tons

Phase Shift: Melting

108,567,000 x 0.1 = 10,856,7000 joulse or 0.003 tons

Phase Shift: Evoparation

40,000,000 × 25700 = 1028000000000 joules or 245.7 tons

Grand total: 296.703 tons
6. ### Lightning Dodge: The Feat that Keeps On Giving

Got reaction time, got speed. Now let's see how much work Barry put into saving his and Joe's skin from the fryer. This is gonna be a pretty bland looking calc, since I have already done most of the math in other calcs.

Known variables:

Starting velocity = 0 m / s
Final velocity = 369864.23 m/s
Distance = 3.2 meters
Mass = 150kg*

*Joe is portrayed as being much smaller than his actor is in real life. So it wouldn't make sense to use his irl weight of 80+ kg. Instead, I just decided to double Barry's weight to account for the second person.

Unknown variables:

Acceleration = (369864.23 - 0) / 0.00001 = 36986423000 m/s^2
Force = 36986423000 * 150 = 5547963450000 N

The actual calc:

Work = 3.2 * 5547963450000 = 17753483040000 J or 4.2 Kt
7. ### Flash Redirects Bullet (cause fuck physics)

So I noticed that not only can Barry clearly see this bullet in flight, but it actually appears to be holding completely still. At first, I was just gonna go for the standard "how long would it take the bullet to go 1mm", but then I realized there was something much more impressive going on then Barry tracking the bullet along its path. From Barry's perspective, the bullet isn't spinning.

So, instead of looking at how long it should take the bullet to travel a certain distance, I am going to try and nail down Barry's perception, and thereby his reactions, based on the bullet's rotational speed.

According to the IMFDB, the weapon we are dealing with is an H&K MP7. It has a twist rate of 1:6 (160mm) and a muzzle velocity of ~ 720 m/s. These are the two variables we will need to find the spin.

Spin = 720m/s / 0.16m 4500rps

4500rps (1 rotation = 0.0002s)

These are the frames we get showing Barry and the bullet "in motion".

Given that the bullet is literally frozen in place for 4 frames, I think it's safe to say that it hasn't rotated 1% of its circumference in that time. I know 1mm is the standard for this sort of thing, but that's upwards of 1/4 the circumference of the bullet. A spin that rapid would be extremely obvious from the perspective we are given. So that just seems dishonest here.

1 rotation = 1 / 4500 = 0.0002s
1% of 1 rotation = 4 frames = 0.0002 / 100 = 0.000002s
1 frame = 0.000002 / 4 = 0.0000005s

Based on how casually he reaches out for the bullet across those 4 frames, it's safe to say that he can perceive each individual frame.

Able to react to Mach 8,300+ from 1 meter out.

500 m/s shy of 1% LS. So, like...sub-sub-relativistic......

Barry catches bullet: 0.675 / 0.000002 = 337500 m/s or ~ Mach 991 (Just shy of 1k. I think my calcs are mocking me. )

Noticed that Barry's hand is around the bullet for two of those four frames. So he traveled the initial distance in half the time.

.675 / .0000001 = 775,000 m/s or Mach 1982 (there it is )

Note:
If you are of the mind that the slow-mo stays consistent when the angle switches from the bullet to Barry running in for the save (ie: if you are wrong); I was able to time the spin of the bullet at 1/4 rotations per 13 frames, or 0.25 / 13 = 1.9% of a rotation per frame. So, you can just divide these results by 8 in order to get a more conservative low-end, if you fancy.

Once I get someone to handle some scaling that's a little beyond me, then I will be back to get his overall speed for the takedown of the goons.
8. ### DCTV Sub-Relativistic Reactions

Barry Tracks Lightning

Probably should have grabbed this when I was calcing his speed, but better late than never.

Going frame-by-frame, we can see that Barry registers and reacts to the lightning as it is hitting the glass, but before the glass actually begins to come apart.This leads me to conclude that Barry can clearly perceive lighting as it passes through the thickness of the glass.

Average speed of lightning = 97,536 m/s

0.003m / 97,536m/s = 0.00000003s

1m / 0.00000003s = 33,333,333.333333m/s

33,333,333.333333 (100) / 399,792,458 = 8.33

- Capable of reacting to objects moving at 8.33% of light-speed from 1 meter away

Firestorm Contains Nuke

Stein says that Firestorm will have 0.06 to absorb the atomic energy released by this nuke. However, just like every other number ever uttered in DCTV land, this is complete bullshit. The thermal radiation propagates at "roughly" light speed. This means that had Firestorm took the professor's suggested 0.06 seconds to absorb the blast energy, he would have inadvertently allowed all the trees within about 3.9 miles (according to nuke map) to be scorched to ash.

Since that clearly doesn't happen, Jax obviously took it upon himself to pick up the pace.

I can't find any way to get a super clean scaling of the burn radius, but I do think I can get a super conservative estimate. This is the best shot we get of the inside of the crater. What is visible measures out to be 7.65 m.

It seems safe to assume that we are seeing at least half, likely more, of the crater floor. So doubling that number to get the crater's width should make for a conservative scaling tool.

Plugging all the numbers gives us an approx blast range of 25m.

99% (roughly) LS = 296801463.42 m/s

Time it takes Firestorm to halt thermal energy: 25 / 296801463.42 = 8E-8s
- Capable of reacting to objects moving at 3.95% of light-speed from 1 meter away

This doesn't help Firestorm too much in terms of 1v1 combat, as he is way too slow to capitalize on it much. That said, it does make his ability to absorb radiation and other forms of energy far more practical in combat situations; allowing to him to react to lightspeed attacks from characters that are otherwise in his speed tier.
9. ### Savitar: "Let's go for a run...or perhaps just a light jog"

Anybody who watches Flash with any consistency will certainly remember when Savitars first real appearance. The one where he takes an opportunity to show Barry the insane difference in their ability by dragging Barry across the city so fast that Barry felt like they where teleproritng..

By taking that scene at .25 speed, I was actually able to plot out the shortest possible course Savitar could have been taking between all the blips that start flashing up on the Star Labs computer.

As I mentioned back in my Nighty's "Barry laps Central City" calc, all the overhead shots of CC are actually from Portland, Oregon. This means that the body of water we see cutting through the city is in fact the Willamette River. According to our friend Google maps, one of the bridges crossing that river is about 0.2 miles across.

There are like 9 screenshots of the same 2 seconds of footage,so just click here to go to the imgur album with all the relevant images.

Total distance covered 15260.7m
Time: 2s
Speed 15260.7 / 2 = 7630.35 m/s or ~ Mach 22.4

Barry getting blitzed at Mach 22. Maybe CW"s right. Maybe he is only mach 3.
10. ### DCTV Calc - Clark and Kara save space shuttle

It looks like I might finally have something, aside from the PIS induced ramblings of Barry Allen, to justify Supergirl and her ilk being listed in the MHS+ range.

In the season 2 premier of Supergirl, Kara and Clark race from opposite sides of the country to catch a falling space shuttle. It's never mentioned where the shuttle ends up, or where it was when it started falling, but neither of those things will be relevant for this calc. Since the two are literally on opposite sides of the country, one of them had to have gone at least as far as the half-way point.

Distance from L.A. to Delaware is ~ 3800 km. This means that one of the two Kryptonians had to fly at least 1900 km in order to reach the shuttle. Now all we need is a time frame.

Most calcs I have seen that deal with the height of "outer space" use the Karman Line, which sits at about 100,000m. This is what I will use to figure out how long the shuttle could free fall before hitting the ground. Before I do that though, I have to figure out how exactly how high the shuttle is when the two take off. Both of them spend about 20 seconds listening to the report.

Distance fallen in 20s: 0.5 * 9.8 * 20^2 = 1960m

Remaining distance until impact: 100,000 - 1960 = 98,040m

Time duo has to catch shuttle: √ 2 * -98,040 / -9.8 = 141.4

Subtracting the initial free fall took a whole 1.4 seconds off the deadline. fml
.
The ship's altitude gauge reads about 65,000 feet (19,812m) when the two arrive to save the day. This means the ship has fallen 70,228m while Clark and Kara were en route.

Free fall time: √ 2 * -70,228 / -9.8 = 84.6 seconds

Speed = 1900000 / 84.6 = 22458.6 m/s or Mach 65.998

Man, you'd have to shave another 30 seconds off their time just to touch MHS. I suppose an argument could be made for the time it would have taken for the news outlets to get the information they where relaying, but that would be baseless speculation.

Welp, I'm officially downgrading Kryptonians and their ilk to Hypersonic+. Barry's word alone simply isn't enough to justify them scaling to him, not when none of their showings can back up the claim.

Sorry, @Sherlōck. I tried.
11. ### DCTV Calc - Barry goes Zeus on Sand Demon

This should be pretty straight forward. Barry's lightning turned Sand Demon into a human-shaped fulgurite; naturally accruing glass formations created when lightning strikes sand. According to the interwebs, this requires temperatures in excess of 3200 F. All we gotta do is figure out the mass of a sand person, then use the specific heat of sand to calculate the energy needed to raise the temperature of that much sand by 3100 degrees.

All we should need to find Sand Demon's mass is A) the volume of an average person, and B) the density of sand. Both of these are readily available via the googles.

Humans are almost entirely water, so our volume in liters is basically 1-for-1 to our mass in kg. The actor that plays SD is listed as weighing 160lb (~72 kg).

Volume of Sand Demon = 72 liters (~ 0.07m^3)

Now I just need to figure out the density of sand. It's mentioned that Sand Demon would die if he were to be dehydrated, so I'll go with damp sand.

Density of damp sand
= 1602 kg/m^3

Mass of Sand Demon: 1602 * 0.07 = 112.14 kg

Specific heat of sand = 830 J/kg

Heat needed to raise Sand Demons temperature 3100 F (~1977.5 K): 112.14 * 830 * 1977.5 = 184,058,185.5 joules or 0.04 tons of TNT

Tools:
http://www.calculator.net/density-calculator.html
http://www.endmemo.com/physics/specificheat.php
12. ### More DCTV Speed Calcs

Barry Fetches Meteor

During last year's cross-over, Barry runs from the "ass-end off nowhere" to Keystone City and back in about half a second. I've been wanting to do this one for a while, but have had trouble finding a conservative estimate for his distance. I think I've got something now.

FPS = 23.976
12 frames = 0.501 seconds
http://toolstud.io/video/framerate....tion=12&duration_unit=frames&outputfps=23.976

When Cisco and Barry first arrive at the farm house the team is staying at, Cisco mentions that the roaming charges are going to bankrupt him. According to google, this means that Cisco is at least 22 miles [35.4km] (average 45 [72.4]) from the nearest cell tower owned or used by his carrier. This range can be shrunken down to about 3 miles [4.8km] with enough interference. I don't think the area the team is in is densely forested enough to generate that kind of interference; but it will make for a good low-end none the less.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_site

Given that everyone's phones seem to work fine at home, it's safe to assume that Cisco is also 22 miles from Central City. It's been well established that Keystone City is right next to Central City in the DCTV universe. It's near enough that Barry used to runaway from Joe's to visit Henry in Iron Heights. Keystone was also in range of the particle accelerator explosion. So it seems reasonable for this calc to just assume they are the same place.

High end = 72400 / 0.5 = 144800 m/s or ~ Mach 425.5
Mid = 35400 / 0.5 = 70800 m/s or Mach 208
Low end = 4800 / 0.5 = 9600 m/s or ~ Mach 28.2

High = 144,841 / 0.5 = 289,682 m/s or Mach 851.2
Mid = 34,373.8 / 0.5 = 128,747.6 m/s or Mach 378.3
Low = 9,856.06 / 0.5 = 19312.12 m/s or Mach 56.7

Not sure how people will respond to cell range as a valid measure for distance. If it helps, there are a few establishing shots that make it reasonably clear that there are no major cities between the house and the horizon in any direction. It also just so happens that 3 miles is about as far as you can see without standing on something. So the low-end should be acceptable regardless of how people feel about the cell range method.

Faster than a Speeding Bullet

Kara outruns a bullet. Simplicity itself.

According to the super-special-awesome @iwandesu, Supergirl is about 2.4 meters from Mxy's would-be victims.

Looking at the scene frame-by-frame, we can see that Kara's feet are still firmly planted when the first shot rings out. Note the audio spike.

Fun fact: Frame-by-frame also shows that sound is faster than light in the DCTV universe. The muzzle flash wont show for another 2 frames.

Based on the scaling iwan did above, and the following picture, it's pretty clear that Kara actually beats the bullet out of the gun, not just to the thug. There simply isn't enough room for the bullet to be anywhere else but in the barrel. The guns where only a few inches away from the thugs to start with.

So, low-end muzzle velocity of a typical pistol seems to be 360 m/s. Now all we need is the length of the barrel.

Cool, now we can do the math.

Time for bullet to leave barrel = 360m/s / 0.09m = 0.00025 seconds
Distance = 2.42499m
Speed = 2.42499m / 0.00025 sec = 9699.96 m/s or ~ Mach 28.5
13. ### Shattering the Bar: Barry Laps Central City (TV Flash)

Looks pretty basic. Barry takes off at about 0:39, and the monitor shows him completing his first lap at 0:41 - so 2 seconds per lap.

The show uses Portland, OR for most of it's overhead shots, so that's what I'll use for Central City's perimeter.

Area of Portland = 376km^2
Perimeter = 376 * 4 = 1504km
Barry's speed = 1504000 / 2 = 752000 m/s or Mach 2192.41

Low end = Mach 151.93
High end = Mach 710.28
14. ### DCTV Calc - Flash and Supergirl Go Cross-Country

In the recent DCTV cross-over, Barry and Kara take a quick trip cross-country; tagging a bunch of freaky alien genotypes along the way. We see Kara and Barry heading out of the city around 2:30, and Felicity hitting the trigger at 3:30.

By the time Felicity hits the button Kara has already reached New York; while Barry has run through the northwest and what looks like a bad GTA alley. This all lines with the map that Felicity had with markers in:

1. South Cali,
2. Oregon,
3. NY
4. Cleveland (Central City)

Distance from Cleveland to New York = 650.9 km
Travel Time = 41s
Speed = 650900 / 41 = 18575.6 m/s or Mach 54.59

Not bad. Pretty consistent with her other showings. Now on to Barry.

Distance from Cleveland to Portland = 3302.36 km
Distance from Portland to San Diego = 1502.21 km
Total Distance = 4804.57 km
Travel time = 36s
Speed = 4804570 / 36 = 133460.27 m/s or ~Mach 392.2

A very nice MHS feat for Barry. It's nice to see something more casual than his lightning dodge in this range.
15. ### Flah (CW) Bit Feats #1

1. Barry searches for Zoom (S2E18)

While escaping from Team Flash's trap, Zoom shoulder-checks Barry; spinning him 180 degrees and knocking him to the ground. Barry gives chase as soon as he regains his bearings; crisscrossing several blocks in a couple of seconds.

Average US city block = 80m x 274m
1 block = 25 px
1px = 3.2m

Total pixels = 4373
Total distance = 4737 x 3.2 = 13993.6m
Time = 2 seconds

Speed = 13993.6 / 2 = 6996.8 m/s or ~Mach 20.56

2. How the writers justify Mach 2 (S1E6)

Early in Season 1 Flash ends up having to take on the first real brick of the series - a Collusus-type called Girder. After going for Deadpool's patented T-Rex method a few times, Barry eventually remembers that he understands basic high-school physics, and decides to try getting a run-up.

During his first trip, Barry goes 5.3 miles (8.5km) in 17 seconds: 8529.52 / 17 = 501.73 m/s or ~Mach 1.47. He apparently values his own skin more than Iris, as his return trip takes a second longer - making his speed 8529.52/ 18 = 473.862 m/s or ~ Mach 1.39

Now for the DC.

Barry's (Grant Gustin's) mass = 75kg

KE = 0.5 * 473.862^2 * 75 = 8420444.81j or 0.002 tons

Speed = Mach 1.38 - Mach 1.46
DC = 0.002 tons
or high wall-level