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  1. Marking the close of 2018, and the arrival of 2019, I figured I should drop a line to you fine folks who've bothered to stick around and have born so much patience with me~!

    An intriguing film to cover, given the eponymous role of what the literal Alpha Pokemon within the entire setting from its introduction in 2006 to the present date: the universal creator, Arceus.

    As it turns out, this movie is fairly giving in terms of impressive feats for the fella! It's mostly a matter of determining the legitimacy of said feats in terms of my methodology, honestly...

    1# - Attack Speed (Arceus' Judgment)

    As it happens, the G.O.A.T. appreciates a festive display of fireworks along with the rest of us humble mortals, except it's all year long and they're a touch more spark than sizzle...





    As you may have already discerned, the stopgap place between each "pair" is very much deliberate: they showcase the initial and the final frame of each Judgment "bolt" that I am planning to scale and rate for projectile speed. So there's 4 seperate values to be determined under this sub-heading.

    But first things first, we're going to need to establish some location groundwork, which will be essential for determining our foundational measurement(s) for the upcoming scalings. Per Dogasu, the geography of M12's town and surrounding countryside of Michina was primarily inspired by the real-world location of Metéora, in northwestern Greece.

    A couple of comparative images to properly illustrate the parallel: RL [1, 2, 3] | M12 [1, 2, 3]

    Of course, before we progress with the bolts themselves, I need to establish the height of our rocky outcrop that bases the entire scaling!

    The average height, per Encyclopedia Britannica, of a Meteora rock pillar, appears to be roughly 300 metres (though the tallest megaliths in the region have been measured up to 550 metres, just to keep in mind). A perfectly cromulent low-end figure for us to use here!

    There is a pixel scaling approach I could take into account, evaluating direct parameters of the landscape to develop a more "direct" final height of the pillar, which would almost assuredly yield much higher results, but I'll get to that in a bit...



    Bolt #1

    Pokemon M12 was filmed at 24 FPS.

    4/24 = 0.17 seconds

    177.30/0.17 = 1042.94 m/s or Mach 3.065

    Bolt #2

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds

    195.04/0.21 = 928.76 m/s or Mach 2.73

    Bolt #3

    8/24 = 0.33 seconds

    283.69/0.33 = 859.67 m/s or Mach 2.53

    Bolt #4

    326.64/0.33 = 989.82 m/s or Mach 2.91


    Virtually the same as the low-end evaluation, just substituting out the relevant megalith's height of 300 m for the "maximum" measurement of 550 m.

    So, in summary:

    M12 rock pillar height (423 pixels = 550 metres)

    Bolt #1 (250 pixels = 325.06 metres)
    Bolt #2 (275 pixels = 357.565 metres)
    Bolt #3 (400 pixels = 520.09 metres)
    Bolt #4 (460 pixels = 598.11 metres)

    Bolt #1

    325.06/0.17 = 1912.12 m/s or Mach 5.62

    Bolt #2

    357.565/0.21 = 1702.69 m/s or Mach 5.0038

    Bolt #3

    520.09/0.33 = 1576.03 m/s or Mach 4.63

    Bolt #4

    598.11/0.33 = 1812.455 m/s or Mach 5.33

    So. Comfortably mid-range supersonic velocity if we go by the most conservative estimate for the M12 Meteora tributes' size; transitional to low hypersonic range if we're being a touch more generous and assume that the megalith containing the major temple structure that the film is mostly set around is actually one of the more impressive lithostructures of the landscape (not an entirely unreasonable premise honestly, particularly considering what I'm about to show here)...

    ...but there's always a ceiling for us to slide our fingertips across, no?


    As I already mentioned here, I'll be getting a bit more down 'n dirty with this high-end assumption, employing my lifelong application of gratuitious pixel-scaling to hopefully interesting use~

    So, our ceiling figure for the megalith is a whooping 2158.53 metres, or 2.15853 km! You can begin to imagine what those bolt speeds are going to look like already...

    M12 rock pillar height (423 pixels = 2158.53 metres)

    Bolt #1 (250 pixels = 1275.73 metres)
    Bolt #2 (275 pixels = 1403.30 metres)
    Bolt #3 (400 pixels = 2041.16 metres)
    Bolt #4 (460 pixels = 2347.34 metres)

    Bolt #1

    1275.73/0.17 = 7504.29 m/s or Mach 22.05

    Bolt #2

    1403.30/0.21 = 6682.38 m/s or Mach 19.64

    Bolt #3

    2041.16/0.33 = 6185.33 m/s or Mach 18.18

    Bolt #4

    2347.34/0.33 = 7113.15 m/s or Mach 20.90

    ...that's, eh...that's a big step up. "Neil Armstrong landing onto the Moon" kinda big step, maybe.

    Dunno what else to say about it, really: I'm a little sketchy if I'm actually scaling the correct staircase in the second scaled image of the closest spoiler box up, but frankly, that'd probably mean I've only low-balled my final result of the high-end, given it's the sole visible steps from that vantage point, and knowing that the platform from which I started scaling Girl of the Movie with Satoshi Gang is directly above the ruin section directly etched into the mound itself, thus 99% ensuring that I've correctly located the immediate area.

    So: low-end, still solidly supersonic. Mid-end, trans-hypersonic, so to speak. High-end appears to be blatant high hypersonic threshold, which is nice.

    As for speedscaling?

    The most meaningful or helpful answer I could provide can be best displayed in Dialga & Palkia's return to M12, roughly 1/3rd thru the film: rage-blinded, Arceus casts off a Judgment in a generally messy display of power; as the original blast hits its crescendo and bursts forth as a falling shower of meteoric bolts, we suddenly cut to a pair of dimensional portals abruptly manifested, and the dragonic duo emerging forth; as energy bolts [still in freefall following the wormhole(s) cut] approach Satoshi & co.'s immediate location, Dialga and Palkia are able to comfortably intercept the descending blast(s), with time to spare to erect their shield bubble(s) once in position, and harmlessly dissipate the otherwise fatal fireworks.

    The sequence rather convincingly suggests at least equivalent speed range for Arceus' Judgment and the reaction rates/possible "burst" speed for the Cosmic Trio, at least in my humble opinion.

    2# - Attack Speed (Arceus' Flamethrower)

    In addition to its signature move o' doom, Arceus also displays a variety of extra-spicy elemental powers, appropriately in line with its divine creator status. Flamethrower is its second-most prolific display of gratuitious indignation. We're also given a straightforward, no-frills sequence of remarkable speed for the fiery breath: but exactly how fast is it?

    (source for Arceus height)

    4/24 = 0.17 seconds

    30.11/0.17 = 177.12 m/s (Mach 0.5205)

    ...yeah, not quite in the same realm of velocity as Judgment. Solidly subsonic holy fire ain't nothing either, though.


    For those curious as to why I've left this entry effectively abandoned over the course of the past year: aside from general inconsistent presence in this area and on NF in general, a more specific reason was on-and-off mulling over the parameters of a particular "feat", which appeared to be potentially calculable in a productive fashion: Arceus sacrificing 5 of its 12 self-preserving Plates to produce the Orb of Life, an artifact capable of restoring vitality to an entire region (likely several dozen kilometres in expanse at minimum, given real-life geographic parallels), and demonstrated to do just that in the film, re-greening a desolate wasteland ravaged by meteorites.

    However, when it came down to the actual business, I struggled to wrangle the calc's probable mechanics to any degree of meaningful accuracy or legitimacy. Badly. On top of that, when I seemed to finally parse out a vaguely acceptable result...the outcome was so miniscule (relative to the general scale of the feat) as to be largely irrelevant to not just the Orb's capabilities or Arceus, but to any Pokemon of distinction I've already chartered in this film series coverage, up to this point.

    So I made the ultimate decision to eliminate this tedious writer's block entirely from my mind, by simply scrapping the notion of covering this feat altogether. Just not worth any further morsel of effort or energy to divulge in, at least in my humble opinion!


    3# - Durability (Arceus vs. Giant Asteroid)

    Perhaps the most famous and well-regarded feat showcased in M12: during the flashback of historic character Damos, our qilin saviour opts to wholly disregard its own well-being, and mount an explosive front charge against a particularly massive meteorite, easily of the scale with land-ending implications, as it were...


    (A little embarassed to say exactly how long it took me to figure out how best to obtain the width for the meteorite, but in my defence, we receive a grand total of zero full-view shots of the asteroid from any angle that allows for both length & width viewing...)

    Seems simple enough of a scaling, right?

    Just lemme toss in a dash extra to make it all a bit muddier!


    The vague oblong proportions of the meteorite has me feeling doubtful that assuming a basic cuboid shape for the volume formula is necessarily the most accurate or honest approach, so I decide to compromise down the middle (as I am wont to do in these calcs), and treat you to 2 separate equations:


    (where a, b and c denote the diameters [full dimensions] of the measured object)

    2448*1550.40*742.05 = 2,816,361,135.36 m^3


    (where a, b and c denote the radii [half dimensions] of the measured object)

    (1.33)*3.14*1224*775.20*371.025 = 1,470,210,921.69 m^3

    So yes, a pretty radical divide across this spectrum, no doubt. But even the lower result is mighty impressive to me: not what I would've anticipated out of this feat, just from an eye test of the meteorite. I'll opt to maintain coverage of both volume result(s) going further.


    There are three primary "layman" categories for asteroids by composition: C-type, S-type and M-type. "Forming around 75% of known asteroids" [C-type Wikipedia article, citation provided on page], and approx. 80% of the bollides within the outer rim of the Sol system's asteroid belt (the most probable origin point of this particular extraterrestrial menace), the C-type or carbonaceous asteroid will be the composition type I'll choose to focus on here.

    Per this detailed article (page 7 of the .pdf file, Table 2 in section 4.3 ["Indirect density estimates"]), bollides with a diameter "...of a few to tens of kilometers" (bottom right of page 6 in .pdf) are simply too small to have their density pinned down to an exact science or specific equation, and thus necessitate a higher degree of ballpark estimation, utilising the density of water as a normalising control factor.

    The section of aforementioned Table 2 we should be focusing on is CI->CK, or the carbonaceous chondrites. Unfortunately, lacking so much information on the Pokeverse asteroid past size, I cannot confidently stride in and select one with assurance for accuracy. Once again, I peer toward the aisle of compromise for aid: derive a mean figure out of the mean density range already provided!

    1.60 + 2.25 + 3.10 + 3.03 + 2.79 + 2.85 = 15.62

    15.62/6 = 2.60 g/cm^3 or 2600 kg/m^3 is the density I'll be sticking to going forward.



    2816361135.36*2600 = 7,322,538,951,936 kg


    1470210921.69*2600 = 3,822,548,396,394 kg


    The Encylopedia Britannica article on meteors and meteoroids informs us that: "The minimum velocity with which a meteoroid can enter the atmosphere is equal to Earth's escape velocity of 11.2 km per second" (quote lifted verbatim from excerpt under "Basic features of meteors"). The sheer size of this particular asteroid, in conjunction to the obvious visual indicators of ablation in effect (immense heat emission along rocky surface, constant disintegration and splintering of original mass upon atmospheric entry), support the use of this minimal benchmark figure.

    Kinetic Energy


    (0.5)*3822548396394*11200*11200 = 2.397502354e+20 J or 57.30 gigatons of TNT equivalent.


    (0.5)*7322538951936*11200*11200 = 4.592696431e+20 J or 109.77 gigatons of TNT equivalent.

    Not quite the Dinosaur Killer we're talking about here, even on the higher-end rating, but still a pretty mean mound of space rock to deal with.

    Arceus single-handedly neutralises this mighty meteorite: not just through halting further advance with a direct collision, but seemingly overpowering the bollide's KE output with its own momentum, boring through the rock itself until finally triggering a large burst of light and a spectacular explosion.


    Two very important notes to make:

    1. This feat scales to no one [NO ONE] in the Pokeverse anime, except Arceus at 100% output. By "100% output", I define that as Arceus in its physical avatar state, with all 16* elemental Plates firmly attached to its body. This assessment is mostly reinforced by Arceus' dominant performance in combat vs. the Cosmic Dragon Trio throughout M12, despite being devoid of 5 of its life-essential Plates in that period (a little over 25% of its strength absent).

    * = Predates the introduction of the Fairy-type in Generation VI of the franchise.

    2. Even at full (mortal) strength and providence, the violence of the collision and resulting explosion was still easily sufficient to incapacitate Arceus, to the degree of comfortably satisfying a K.O. stipulation by general OBD standards, and even severed its connection to its many Plates to the degree of requiring external assistance to be resuscitated. This is mostly a ceiling estimate for actual durability, not a guaranteed capacity for physical endurance in a hypothetical combat scenario. Important to consider.

    Still, with that being said, anime!avatar!Arceus is undoubtedly a tank that's not be to be trivially trifled with, if you're ain't packing the biggatons at least.

    And with that...finally, F I N A L L Y, I conclude this chapter of feat coverage!


    Pokemon Movie 12: Arceus and the Jewel of Life (2009)

    Speed (Attack, Arceus' Judgment): Mach 2.53 - 3.065 [low-end] - Mach 4.63 - 5.62 [mid-end] - Mach 18.18 - 22.05 [high-end]
    Speed (Attack, Arceus' Flamethrower): 177.12 m/s
    Energy Output (Photosynthetic, Jewel of Life): Indeterminate
    Energy Output (Kinetic, Giant Meteorite): 57.30 gigatons [assuming meteorite is an ellipsoid] - 109.77 gigatons [assuming meteorite is a cuboid] of TNT equivalent.
  2. I honestly feel the most inspiring and appealing part of this entire work is the blerg title; so you've been warned~

    Whatever though: it's been a while motherfuckers! Today is actually my birthday, but I've decided to be the one to treat you assholes to another piece of my (extremely questionable and definitely overrated) genius. Hell, I hear these gifts occasionally arrive in pairs, y'know


    But regardless, before the onset of my next 6 month hiatus...


    1# - Travel Speed (Flight of Sky Forme Shaymin)

    A straightforward enough feat for evaluation, I should hope: basically a biological showcase of the (then) novelty of Shaymin's Sky Forme transformation, initiated through physical contact with the Gracidea flowering plant. One of the perks of Sky Forme, as the name strongly suggests, is the bestowal of powered flight to the normally terrestrial Legendary: we receive an ample demonstration of this as the winged hedgehog first bursts through the clouds to a soaring apex, before a sharp descent back down to proverbial (and I suppose literal) earth.

    For such a seemingly basic calculation, however, you may be surprised at the number of timestamps I've provided for this: the original plan I devised was to break the speed feat down into "gaps", studying them scene-by-scene to determine the absolute maximum burst of velocity demonstrated by Shaymin during the ascent period. This may very well pan out in fully fleshed form: however, for the time being, efficiency prevailed over detail, so I'll merely play with the overall timespan of both the ascent and the descent of Shaymin's flight, leaving the markers for potential reference.


    42:50 (Beginning of sequence
    (First full-size view of the ferry in the background)
    43:00 (ferry now completely out of sight; scaling basis now shifts entirely to river width)
    43:01 ("end of sequence" [as in, the final step of the sequence that is directly relevant to figuring out the speed result]])

    43:01 - 42:50 = 11 seconds is the calc timespan here.

    Scaling time:


    (Source on Japanese adult height figure.)


    Obligatory formula dropbox:

    Result should be 2.172848622476 degrees

    Calculator should provide a final answer for PoV-river distance as 20.648 kilometres.

    20.648 km = 20,468 metres
    20,468/11 = 1877.09 m/s or Mach 5.52

    Not bad, not bad at all; however, I feel we can do one better than that.


    Pretty much the same deal as the ascent, except...y'know, heading in the opposite direction. As it is a descending flight. Downwards.

    However, a couple of slight but important deviations must be noted:

    (1) As mentioned earlier, Shaymin's not actually at its peak of upward flight for the previous speed calc; there's a further 3 seconds of seamless footage succeeding the river angsize screencap. However, the camera angle is fundamentally altered in that span, rendering it exceedingly messy to attempt a direct estimation of total altitude beyond highly sceptical and frown-worthy guesstimation assuming consistent acceleration, which is not worth my time or the OBD's.

    (2) The descent is noticeably faster, unsurprisingly enough:

    43:04 (Shaymin attains apex altitude/actual end of Ascent sequence & start of Descent sequence)
    43:13 (Shaymin returns to ~ferry ship elevation/end of Descent sequence)

    Leaving us with a timeframe of 9 seconds to work with here.

    Since I cannot accurately determine the endpoint height above sea level that Shaymin attained immediately preceding its descent, and how visually it appears to be an ultimately negligible difference (assuming the camera shift between 43:00 + 43:04 is purely directional, and not operating on an alternate plane of height), I'll be retaining the 20.468 km figure as a reasonable placeholder. I'll also ignore the difference in elevation between the ferry's open-air deck and the river/sea level, because I'm a sloth of calculations.

    20,648/9 = 2294.22 m/s or Mach 6.74

    Fairly comfortable low hypersonic speed for Sky Forme Shaymin is hardly leaving room for complaint here, even if it was not aligned with my warped pre-calc perspective on the feat as a whole: note that these Mythical Pokemon of the film(s) usually tend to operate on dramatically lower ranges of power compared to the 'bonafide' Legendaries. Shaymin specifically compares far more evenly with Ash's party of Pokemon than to Giratina in either Forme, for example. Perhaps most notably, Ash's Staravia appears to be evenly matched in speed with Sky Forme in the air.

    2# - Speed (Zero's Gunship)

    At the film's climax, the central antagonist Zero manages to successfully siphon ~99% of Giratina's energy reserves accessible to its flesh 'avatar' state, including mimicry of key techniques such as the ability to freely travel into the Reverse World dimension via reflective surface(s). Before he enters tactical retreat, however, the protagonist gang attempt to disable his personal kill-mobile while in the natural world...to ultimately minimal success.

    Focusing on the gunship's evasion of Pikachu's Thunderbolt for this calculation:


    (Source for Origin Forme Giratina's length)

    18.60 - 6.63 = 11.97 metres is the drop distance experienced by the gunship.

    The entire sequence, which are bookmarked by the first and third screencaps of the immediately above spoiler, consists of 7 frames.

    Pokemon M11 was filmed at 24 FPS.
    7/24 = 0.29 seconds

    11.97/0.29 = 41.28 m/s

    A reasonably low linear speed estimate for this work, but with the caveat of the entire calculation working on a, quite frankly, low-end evaluation: that the bolt of electricity merely travels exactly as fast as visually depicted. Which is perfectly rational, but for the consistent portrayal of Electric-type attacks in the anime continuity of the Pokeverse as hitting supersonic to hypersonic velocities in-atmosphere.

    The gunship's dodge is undoubtedly impressive, even if the hard numbers don't quite mesh up to the hype I'm suggesting.

    3# - Kinetic Energy (Regigigas [and friends] vs. the Glacier)

    This is the biggun of the film's calcuable feats, and mostly the reason for my prolonged hesitation in getting it down to paper.

    Basically, the mechanics of interaction between the "natural world" (the universe which is frequented by humans and the overwhelming majority of Pokemon, basically) and Giratina's Reverse World in the anime Pokeverse is one of "asymmetrical reciprocity". The two dimensions neatly "overlap" each other in terms of coordinates being of parallel positioning. However, since the Reverse World serves as a dimensional anchor which keeps the space-time of both realms stable, precisely inflicting environmental trauma in Giratina's creation reflects an equivalent scale of destruction upon any object(s) positioned within the exact same 'coordinates' in the natural world.

    To avoid a further 5 paragraphs on the subject, the second phase of the film's climax involves Zero deliberately targeting cylinders of ice within the Reverse World, revealed to be extra-dimensional "support beams" for the enormous glacier in the natural world: the glacier begins on a violent descent through the valley, threatening to smash apart the local Gracidea flowerbed where Shaymin congregate annually, with a small human settlement only a short distance further down the basin. However, as the glacier lurches into action, the activity awakens the legendary Regigigas, conveniently entombed inside a local shrine normally sealed in permafrost, as well as alerting a herd of Mamoswine to the environmental peril.


    Of course, the spoilered content merely addresses potential height and width for the cascading glacier, and the most important attribute for the final result remains evasive: 'body' length. The solitary full view of the glacier in the entire film we are provided is not particularly helpful for discerning the true figure, unfortunately.

    However, I do believe strongly that I can persuade the audience that we can accurately attribute to the M11 glacier, the dimensions of a real-world equivalent that inspired its inclusion into the storyline.

    Pre-production on Pokemon M11 involved the director travelling to Norway for creative inspiration for the film setting, with three towns specified as ideal locations: Bergen, Voss and Flåm.

    All three settlements have lent geographic influences towards the region we see represented in M11, but at least in my humble opinion, Flåm is most strongly represented in the animated landscape:

    (RL locomotive being of the visually distinctive Flåm Railway line)

    1 | 2


    1 | 2

    Map Reference (unfortunately, not a 1:1 equivalence, but still fairly comparable geography IMHO)

    1 | 2

    My main interest in establishing Flåm as the "closest" RL approximation to the M11 setting is down to the former's setting association with the Jostedalsbreen (continental Europe's largest individual glacier) and the consequential juxtaposition of a comparably sized counterpart within the Pokeverse landscape. There's even a decent visual comparison that can be directly made between the actual and fictional formations, to show that I'm not wholly blowing smoke up your winterbottoms and artificially inflating my parameters (just moderately so!)

    In the interest of an inclusive approach, I'll break this down to my usual fare of "low-end -> high-end" gradient approach, as there does exist a very logical and reasonable LE option:


    Jostedalsbreen is known for its snarling limbs; smaller glaciers freely flowing out of the "main body", upwards of 50, as if manifold branches of an fallen oak tree. Made of ice.

    The most famous and recognisable formation of Jostedal's "glacial arms" would be Briksdalsbreen, a minor glacier jutting out from roughly the centre of Jostedalsbreen, which still manages to extend to a seamless length of approx. 1.2 kilometers, which meshes quite well with the visual depiction of the M11 glacier's general size.

    Multiplying the length with the height/depth and width parameters I obtained directly from M11 screencaps, and inputing the values into a cuboid volume:

    1200*783.14*257.61 = 242,093,634.48 m^3


    An alternative model for calculation is utilising just one of the premade parameters, namely the 257.61 m depth, in concert with a pre-existing value which encompasses the other two dimensions: surface area. Briksdalsbreen's area is estimated to be 11.9 km^2.

    11.9 km^2 = 11,900,000 m^2

    11,900,000*257.61 = 3,065,559,000 m^3


    A much more ambitious assumption at play: rather than merely limiting the M11 avalanche to the sliver equivalent that is Briksdalsbreen, we assume that when they talk "glacier", they mean the whole damn glacier.

    Jostedalsbreen is estimated to be 60 km in span. In this calc, we'll retain my previous obtained width + depth values straight from the M11 glacier.

    60,000*783.14*257.61 = 12,104,681,724 m^3


    The apex of the gradient.

    Using the same approach as the Lower-End assumption, we slot in the given surface area of Jostedalsbreen (487 km^2). This time however, I'll apply the highest thickness value applicable to Jostedal: 571 metres.

    487 km^2 = 487,000,000 m^2

    487,000,000*571 = 278,077,000,000 m^3


    The average density of glaciated ice is apparently 917 kg/m^3, according to research from the University of Copenhagen.

    The violent descent of the ruptured glacier in M11 was sufficiently fast to be deemed an immediate existential threat to both the indigenous Pokemon habitat and the local human village downstream, functioning more as a gargantuan ice avalanche. While ice avalanches are an authentic natural phenomenon, I was unable to locate any credible direct source or statistic for potential velocity: the best I can muster as a replacement figure would be to utilise the descent velocity of a landslide as a filler, as suggested from this handbook (last paragraph of p. 103).

    In turn, the best example of a pure ice landslide event with a recorded speed that I found pertained to the 1895 dry calving of the Altels glacier in Switzerland, which produced an astonishing velocity of 430 km/h (119.44 m/s - info found roughly halfway down the linked article). This definitely seems to me to a little too fast when applying the eye test for the M11 disaster, but I've got scant else to go on, so it'll remain for the time being.



    242093634.48*917 = 221,999,862,818.16 kg

    KE: (0.5)*221999862818.16*119.44*119.44 = 1.583515431e+15 J or 378.47 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    3065559000*917 = 2,811,117,603,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*2811117603000*119.44*119.44 = 2.005158042e+16 J or 4.79 megatons of TNT equi.


    12104681724*917 = 11,099,993,140,908 kg

    KE: (0.5)*11099993140908*119.44*119.44 = 7.917577155e+16 J or 18.92 megatons of TNT equi.


    278077000000*917 = 254,996,609,000,000 kg

    KE: (0.5)*254996609000000*119.44*119.44 = 1.818879796e+18 J or 434.72 megatons of TNT equi.


    Definitely do not buy into the highest-end result, given the semi-effective stalling tactics imposed on the glacier consisted of (a.) freezing over a small lake and (b.) a herd of several dozen Mamoswine and a barely awake Regigigas. Even with a bonafide Legendary-class Pokemon in the mix, there's zero indication to suggest that one which is explicitly underpowered for several minutes before full revitalisation could halt a triple-digit MT kinetic maelstrom spanning several hundred metres of towering ice with such minimal consequence (though the stability lasted all of a few seconds before the glacier renewed [slightly reduced] momentum).

    And by proxy, even the higher-end value, while markedly lower in energy output, is a bridge too far for my personal taste: much of it stems from my current skepticism in believing an expanse of ice the size of Jostedalsbreen's entirety is bearing down during the M11 climax. All the visual cues we are provided of the glacier, both before and during its violent descent, indicate a relatively small formation is involved; a glacial arm in the vein of Briksdalsbreen, which is why I personally lean towards the low-end spectrum as being more accurate in depiction of the feat.

    Of the two remaining values, I actually veer closer to the lower-end as opposed to the lowest-end: while I certainly don't completely disregard my own personal approach to measurement, I do feel that the pre-existing surface area helps just by eliminating a greater possibility for user-made error with the removal of width as a parameter to be determined via pixel-scaling.

    Of particular note: once the debilitating effects of Slow Start wore off, a 100% energised Regigigas not only successfully re-stalled the encroaching glacier which had previously overwhelmed itself + the Mamoswine herd, but it even managed to visibly push the entire formation back by at least several metres. While it could not hold the glacier back indefinitely even at full power, there's virtually zero question for me that fully awakened Regigigas at the very least should scale up to whichever KE output is accepted by consensus.


    4# - Freezing Energy

    This relative bit-feat was briefly referred to in Feat #3: the initial response to the glacial avalanche in the film's climax by the local fauna was for several of their number (with key assistance from Dawn's Swinub + Buneary) to solidify the small lake present at the glacier's terminus via Ice-type technique(s). While a complete failure in even momentarily halting the cataclysm's momentum, it does provide us with a nifty little display of energy output to work with!

    In terms of depth, the film visuals unfortunately indicate that the freezing was quite literally surface-level at best. A 1 metre thickness for the layering doesn't seem particularly unreasonable in this context.

    2488.51*386.415*1 = 961,597.59 m^3

    I'll need a water temperature before I progress any further with a thermal energy calculation: while technically we're dealing with a physically unconnected lake here, the Sognefjord area around the towns of Leikanger and Balestrand would be a close geographical comparison, being in close proximity to Josetalsbreen itself. This article informs us that a summer-time water temperature (M11's seasonal timing is not referenced at any stage of the film, but going by the perennially sunny weather and the general absence of snow or wintry conditions, it's not hard to lean favourably towards a spring-summer period over the autumn-winter phase) is roughly equivalent to the local air temperature, we'll say around 13 degrees Celsius as a reasonable average (10 - 15.5 being the approximate range from April - August).

    At 13 C, the density of freshwater is effectively still 1 g/cm^3 (0.9993801 is a more precise answer, but rounding up just seems sensible when you're pushed to your fourth decimal point to avoid that scenario).

    1 g/cm^3 = 1000 kg/m^3

    961597.59*1000 = 961,597,590 kg

    Now, there are two stages to any half-decent thermal energy calc, starting off with specific heat:

    where C stands for the heat capacity of a substance, Q is the quantified increase (or decrease) of thermal energy, and delta T refers to temperature change of the substance.

    We already know the specific heat capacity of liquid water to be 4.1813 J/gram, and naturally water's freezing point being 0 degrees Celsius automatically confirms our temp. differential to be 13, thus Q remains the unknown factor in our equation: therefore, we need to shift the equation around so as to determine the numerical value of Q.

    Our new formula is then Q = C*m*deltaT

    (m is the simply the mass or weight of the heated object)

    You'll notice a 1000 will also be inserted into this new equation: its purpose is simply to appropriately "inflate" the end result in recognising the vital j/gram -> j/kilogram adjustment having been made.

    Q = 4.1813*1000*961597590*13 = 5.226946404e+13 J or 12.49 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    And onto the second half of this calc, determining the latent heat being exerted by the freezing process:

    Where Q is the thermal energy output, m is the affected object's mass, and L is the specific latent energy of a substance.

    The specific latent energy of water is 334 kJ/kg.

    Again, another 1000 insertion, this time for adjusting the equation's end result in the process of compensating the kJ/kg -> J/kg differential.

    Q = 961597590*334*1000 = 3.211735951e+14 J or 76.76 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    And finally, for the sum energy output:

    76.76 + 12.49 = 89.25 kilotons of TNT equivalent in total.

    (NOTE: technically, this extended calc has just worked out the energy output of the feat were it to have heated up the body of water with the previously scaled parameters, not cooled down; however, in function, this process has helped identify the quantity value of energy that the Ice-technique team could successfully drain out of the targeted object [namely, the small lake], in a negative inversion of the traditional determination.)

    A remarkably impressive display: a result which has had honestly well exceeded personal expectations in terms of scale and magnitude. However, it's still not over just yet.

    The film very clearly establishes this feat to be far from a solo accomplishment: rather, several Pokemon were operating in concert to produce the necessary attack(s) in freezing the lake's surface. I determined a minimum count of 19 participants in this team effort (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 [the Swinub + Buneary of Images 1, 4 & 5 all depict the same specimens])

    Assuming a uniform distribution of individual input into the co-operative process (despite the clear presence of various evolutionary stages of a single Pokemon lineage, the anime/film continuity is generally far more flexible and fluidic on the actual power disparity being expressed, as opposed to the main game series' general primacy on higher evolution stage >>> lower evolution stage in all given aspects of prowess):

    89.25/19 = approximately 4.70 kilotons of TNT equi. is the rough individual contribution to the feat.

    Even this reduced value is both mightily meaty and...also probably reductible further still, given that there's a clear time lapse between the initial volley and complete glazing of the lake (1:15:53 - 1:16:06 in film time, to be exact, or 13 seconds), so further dividing that individual output:

    4.70/13 = 361.54 tons of TNT equivalent is the most comfortable answer for the individual contribution of the Pokemon Freeze Squad. A mite less impressive, but still comfortably in the multi-cityblock range.

    A final slight aside: the Pokemon brigade did not begin their freezing simultaneously, with at least three "divisions" (represented by the first three screencaps of the team count) all starting at different intervals, thus making the final number slightly under-representative, but to a negligible degree IMHO.


    Pokemon Movie 11: Giratina and the Sky Warrior (2008)

    Speed (Flight, Sky Forme Shaymin): Mach 5.52 [ascent] - Mach 6.74 [descent]
    Speed (Flight/Evasion, Zero's Gunship): 41.28 m/s
    Energy Output (Kinetic, Glacial Avalanche): 378.47 kilotons [lowest end] - 4.79 megatons [lower-end] - 18.92 megatons [higher-end] - 434.72 megatons [highest-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Energy Output (Negative Thermal [Energy-Draining], Lake Freezing): 361.54 tons [individual] - 89.25 kilotons [sum output]
  3. I'd start off with a quirky and reassuring "OH HEY GAIZ, SURE BEEN A WHILE LOLOLOZ" quip, but I'm beginning to recognise this as a rapidly apparent pattern or signature of my blog entries in recent months...and I feel that should be an aspect I rather not encourage, heh.

    So, let's jump straight into this mess!


    1# - Alamos Town Size

    The necessary foundation for many of the calcs presented in this entry, obtaining a rough basis for the parameters of not just the strict town boundary, but also a sizeable portion of bedrock it rests upon, also establishes an independent precedent of its own: namely, a minimum limit of volume/mass of physical matter which can be successfully warped across dimensions by the conventional "flesh-and-blood" avatar of Palkia.

    Far and away the easiest and most effective method for scaling the landmass is through the city's aesthetic and cultural landmark: the Space-Time Tower. Unfortunately, there is something of a snafu at play here, namely that the spherical instrument room which serves as the foundation of all subsequent scaling, is decidedly not static in size estimate. See below:


    Technically, there's no canonical basis to prioritise one measurement over the other (yes: 17-18 years of consistently new TV screentime on from his debut, and Ash/Satoshi still lacks an official height), but I prefer to play conservative in this situation (especially when you'll see the numbers I'm crunching with here...), so I'll be sticking with Image #1 in the above spoiler for my baseline. If a more considerate explanation needs to be justified, I'll lob it into the comments section, probably.

    Still, the hurdle of inconsistency has yet to be fully leaped over: the total (or near-total) height of the S-T Tower also fluctuates to an appreciable degree, though even low-end estimates place the structure at a discomforting pinnacle altitude:


    Yes, yes. A "paltry" 340+ metres is the lowest reasonable estimate I could ascribe to a full-shot view of the tower from film screencaps. It's a hilarious big'un, no matter what way you attempt to slice this cake.

    Again, while there is no definitive "wrong" measurement to dismiss out of hand out of the three, my overwhelming tendency is to select Image #1 from the spoiler listing: partly because it's a virtual 100% height capture of the tower, partly because it provides an interesting and immediately apparent "range" of scaling that the other two cannot provide so easily. And believe me, you better get used to a low end-high end scale in this entry!

    In essence, consider the person to S-T Tower comparison height as our mid-end, and the spherical chamber to S-T Tower comparison as our high-end. As for our low-end? The film setting of Alamos Town was inspired by the production team's visit to Spain, specifically to Catalonia and the city of Barcelona (hence the above usage of Spanish height averages): one of the cultural landmarks of the latter location, the in-progress Sagrada Familia basilica, directly provided the aesthetic blueprint for the Space-Time Tower. Given the established precedent of height through reliable scaling, as well as the S-T Tower being a fully complete structure, I propose the planned height of 170 metres of the finished Sagrada Famlia as a reliable low-end estimate.

    So, to summarise my used range of building heights for this entry:


    170 metres (parallel with planned height of RL inspiration)


    341.675 metres (direct human-to-tower scaling comparison)


    1422.56 metres (indirect room-to-tower scaling comparison)

    Anyway, to continue on with the dimensions of the landmass that Palkia shunted out of regular space:


    (yes, lots of numbers to keep track of!)

    In regards to volume and mass of the rocky outcrop: the former will be evaluated through a generic cuboid formula (length*width*height), as I didn't realise the not-insignificant slope dividing the S-T Tower from the rest of Alamos until I got past image editing, while the latter will be using the rock density of granite and a mean value of 2700 kg/m^3 (choosing granite because of geographical parallels with Alamos and the Barcelona region).


    1344.75*571.82*775.70 = 596,478,350.84 m^3

    596,478,350.84*2700 = 1,610,491,547,268 kg


    2702.34*1149.27*1559.04 = 4,841,939,045.65 m^3

    4,841,939,045.65*2700 = 13,073,235,423,255 kg


    11,251.16*4784.97*6491.05 = 349,455,173,579.37 m^3

    349,455,173,579.37*2700 = 943,528,968,664,299 kg

    In my humble (and completely unprofessional) opinion, I would recommend readers to err along the path of the mid-end for result validity, as it seems to be the most snug fit in terms of accuracy.

    Palkia, while restricted to its massively inferior blood-'n-flesh 'avatar' form, was able to nonchalantly displace this entire outcrop of land out of the real world, and initially shunt it into first a pocket-dimension of its own creation, and then strand it within the interdimensional void, with a single modicum of effort.

    Obviously, given that this was a feat of spatial manipulation, there's zero sensible methods for me to obtain even a basic energy yield out of this performance: all you need to know is that anywhere from barely over a trillion to barely under a quadrillion tons of matter was teleported across dimensional boundaries.


    2# - Kinetic Energy (Cloud Dispersal)


    The links above pretty much provide the gist of what I wish to convey in this calc.

    Assuming that the cloud cover in question can be approximated to nimbostratus classification, mostly owing to visual appearance.

    Average nimbostratus thickness is 2500 metres (IIRC, someone else has reuploaded the cloud parameters in a blerg, but I'unno lol).

    Cloud density is 1.003 kg/m^3.


    Borrowing the length and width values of the Alamos landmass for the cloud expanse.


    1344.75*571.82*2500 = 1,922,387,362.50 m^3

    1,922,387,362.50*1.003 = 1,928,154,524.5875 kg


    2702.34*1149.27*2500 = 7,764,295,729.50 m^3

    7,764,295,729.50*1.003 = 7,787,588,616.6885 kg


    11,251.16*4784.97*2500 = 134,591,157,663 m^3

    134591157663*1.003 = 134,994,931,135.99 kg


    This is where things get a little tricky for this particular feat.

    We've got a bulletproof low-end estimate on our hands for the dispersal (52:12 - 53:01), but I noticed during my viewing that there's potential for a much smaller lapse of time, seen at 52:19 (with a much clearer view at 52:24): pay attention to the sky background through the windows. It's definitely vague enough to question, but there appears to be a cropped presence of the distinctive swirl patterns of the dimensional corridor, as opposed to the dark grey monotone of the clouds. Like I said, barely a solid stance, but it makes for an interesting high-end; I'll leave it to the discretion of the commentators to verify.

    Low-End (Timespan)

    49 seconds is the duration presented.

    1344.55/49 = 27.44 m/s (low-end landmass)

    2702.34/49 = 55.15 m/s (mid-end landmass)

    11,251.16/49 = 229.62 m/s (high-end landmass)

    High-End (Timespan)

    7 seconds is the duration presented.

    1344.55/7 = 192.08 m/s

    2702.34/7 = 386.05 m/s

    11,251.16/7 = 1607.31 m/s

    Kinetic Energy

    Low Mass, Low Time

    (0.5)*805,524,499.31*27.44*27.44 = 3.032612858e+11 J or 72.48 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Low Mass, High Time

    (0.5)*805,524,499.31*192.08*192.08 = 1.485980301e+13 J or 3.55 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Mid Mass, Low Time

    (0.5)*3,253,902,348.35*55.15*55.15 = 4.948408603e+12 J or 1.18 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Mid Mass, High Time

    (0.5)*3,253,902,348.35*386.05*386.05 = 2.424720215e+14 J or 57.95 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    High Mass, Low Time

    (0.5)*56,405,178,169.88*229.62*229.62 = 1.486991222e+15 J or 355.40 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    High Mass, High Time

    (0.5)*56,405,178,169.88*1607.31*1607.31 = 7.285985006e+16 J or 17.41 megatons of TNT equivalent.
  4. Oh man: it's sure been a while folks!

    But I have returned to the lauded zone of online vs debate calculations to sow my seeds of wisdom amongst the disenfranchised youth~

    This calc has actually been a bit of a long-burner, despite its simplicity: this is mostly down to the inane difficulty in hunting through Google searches for reasonably accurate and valid sources of necessary values to be inputted into the otherwise straightforward calculation.

    Believe me, getting some of the energy values I obtained here was a borderline Herculean feat, even for a maestro of my searching skills. Absolutely ridiculous usage of time and effort...

    But anyway: this is a basic destructive output calc highlighting a feat from one of those new-fangled pocket monsters native to Poke-France, a.k.a. Kalos of the most recent Generation VI of the Pokemon franchise.

    The species is Meowstic; perhaps best known for being the final evolved state of Gen VI's CAN I HAS MUDKIPZ.


    The feat in question stems from that ever-so-quirky Pokedex; specifically, Meowstic entries from the Pokemon X and Omega Ruby Versions are as follows:

    Mighty impressive stuff to consider. Almost as dramatic as me trying to find the energy values to represent this feat at whatever ungodly hour of the night like an idiot!

    The real important aspect of the emboldened statement, of course, is the precise nature of the truck's demolition: "...to grind...to dust." It's heavily indicative that Meowstic's ESP induced the vehicle to undergo very sudden and large-scale pulverisation of its composition.

    Naturally, the real trouble with this calc emerges when one realises what the primary raw materials are involved in the construction of a modern automobile: steel, aluminium and an assortment of plastics.

    None of these substances have had readily available, OBD-approved pulverisation energy values attributed to them. Until (hopefully) now.

    First off, since the only numerical value we are provided by our game canon source regarding the destroyed object is its mass (10 metric tons), it is pretty crucial that I can break down the composition of a truck to its substance components to determine the percentage by weight. Note that an object's overall composition ratio usually doesn't reflect how much of the weight is traced through each material component, so that's important to distinguish early on.

    Anyway, this is the first great source I managed to dig up: https://books.google.ie/books?id=U_...DAB#v=onepage&q=kerb weight 70% steel&f=false

    Now, this book is dated to '07, and the trend in automobile construction across the spectrum (as mentioned in the source itself) has been to steadily reduce excess weight, so in January 2016, this source could be plausibly seen as a slightly high-end interpretation (given that steel is more likely to consist of a higher percentage of the truck chassis), but this was the best I could do, and as we'll see in a bit, even it is not fully concise about substance makeup.

    Anyway, according to the e-book, 70% of an automobile's kerb weight (weight excluding passengers or baggage) is made of steel; 8% is of an assortment of plastics; another 8% (approximately) is derivative from aluminium. Now, that only adds up to 86% of the total weight, but I cannot for the life of me determine where the remaining 14% comes from and what it's made of. So, for the time being, 1400 kg of the truck will be unaccounted for in this calculation.


    8% of 10,000 kg = 800 kg

    Pages 28-30 of the Solid-State Shear Pulverization manual provides energy consumption figures for several different types of plastic: the system of production is eponymous with the title of the book.

    SSSE provides three various energy values to choose from:

    (1) 60-65 kWh per ton of high-density polyethene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and/or plasticised PVC being reduced to powder of particle size between 100-500 microns.

    (2) 200-400 kWh per ton of vulcanised rubber being reduced to powder of particle size between 300-500 microns.

    (3) 200-500 kWh per ton of rubber being reduced to powder of particle size of 100 microns.

    I'm inclined to focus on (3) as my go-to energy value system here: the manual describes the process specifically involved in (3) as "non-melting", indicating a non-thermal pulverisation approach (heat energy not directly cited in the Pokedex entries), and the micron size is the most fine out of all the listed powders, matching up the closest to the size of dust particles, which the truck residue is directly compared to ingame.

    Low-End (200 kWh/ton)

    800/1000 = a 1.25x difference to factor in (due to there being less than a ton of plastic).

    200/1.25 = 160 kWh was exerted in terms of pulverising the truck's plastic(s).

    160 kWh = 138 kg of TNT equivalent.

    High-End (500 kWh/ton)

    500/1.25 = 400 kWh was exerted.

    400 kWh = 344 kg of TNT equivalent.


    The "Climate Change 2007" e-book describes there being approx. 100 kg of aluminium stored inside the average passenger car; this compares favourably to the 100-120 kg of plastic(s) composition, thus I'll assume the same percentage by weight can also apply here.

    8% = 800 kg.

    Aluminium as a pure metal cannot be found in nature; it requires refined extraction from a metallic ore (such as bauxite) initially and subsequent processing from residue into a more solid composition.

    The former of the two sequences is most undergone through the Bayer process, and is the closest approximation I could find to a hypothetical pulverisation of aluminium in its "final" stage.

    Elemental aluminium from within bauxite gets isolated and refined into alumina or aluminium oxide, generally as a fine light powder, which in turn becomes the primary material to be processed into metallic aluminium. Rather finnicky, but I feel as that I can justify this as pulverisation.

    Specific energy consumption to produce alumina is roughly 14.5 gigajoules per ton. Yes, this is a thermal/electrical process. Yes, I can't do much better at the moment.

    14.5/1.25 = 11.6 GJ was exerted in terms of pulverising the truck's aluminium.

    11.6 GJ = 2.77 tons of TNT equivalent.


    70% of 10,000 kg = 7000 kg

    The big one here, as it should be obvious.

    One more website source: http://www.gkn.com/media/News/Pages/Powder-Metallurgy-best-in-class-for-energy-consumption-.aspx

    Artificial pulverising process in question is powder metallurgy (or at least the first step involved in PM).

    Pure iron is involved in this as opposed to steel, but I figure that it's not a major push by any stretch to substitute the latter for the former in this equation.

    Two different systems of pulverisation here: water atomization (2 kWh/kg) and sponge iron reduction (4 kWh/kg). Low-end and high-end approach it is!


    2*7000 = 14,000 kWh was exerted in terms of pulverising the truck's steel.

    14,000 kWh = 12.05 tons of TNT equivalent.


    4*7000 = 28,000 kWh was exerted.

    28,000 kWh = 24.09 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Sum Energy Output

    Low-End (For Plastic + Steel)

    12.05 + 2.77 + 0.138 = 14.96 tons of TNT equivalent in total.

    High-End (As Above)

    24.09 + 2.77 + 0.344 = 27.20 tons of TNT equivalent in total.


    Aaaaaaand the cat's in the bag! Until it decides to blow it the fuck up!
  5. The third and final chapter of the financially successful and critically lauded Heisei Gamera trilogy.


    "The Dark and Gritty MURDERDEATHKILL Gamera and the Tentacle Porn Possibly-Gyaos-Maybe-Not Mutant with the Cynical Teenager Medium" film


    The blog entry whereupon I look at a bunch of fireballs and see how fast they move!


    Seriously: if you're not a big fan of pyro/plasma spheres travelling at high speeds, you may as well hightail it out of here this instant. Because that's all this entry is going to be covering.

    A very boring conclusion to Gamera, indeed. But a conclusion nonetheless! (until I bother to watch Gamera the Brave anyway...)


    1# - Projectile Speed (Gamera's Fireballs)

    Yeah, the gist of this is that single heading will constitute the entire blog.

    There was a real dearth of quantifiable feats to pick from here, despite it being arguably more action-oriented than its predecessors: maybe a couple speed calcs involving Adult Iris's tentacles, but I found them hugely unwieldy to handle even with frame-by-frame analysis, and the results were destined to be low-end at any rate.

    Fireball #1 (Shibuya District, Tokyo)

    22:28 - Fireball first appears on the screen.
    22:29 - Fireball has reached the opposite end of the screen.


    (Source for Hyper Gyaos wingspan)

    As mentioned above, feat timespan is 1 second.

    Therefore, projectile speed is 1256.62 m/s or Mach 3.69.

    Fireballs #2 & #3 (Kyoto)

    Fireball #2


    (Source for Adult Iris tentacle length)

    Feat timespan is 5 frames.

    Gamera III: RoI was filmed at 24 FPS.

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds
    405.13/0.21 = 1929.19 m/s or Mach 5.67

    Fireball #3

    1:20:05 - Fireball is first visually discernable from the top of the screen [bright white vs the duller yellow ambient heat/light]
    1:20:06 - Fireball reaches the ground.

    (Scaling basis for this image is the Iris tentacle measurement inside the previous spoiler, as all three shots belong to the same continuous sequence).

    Timespan is 1 second.

    Therefore, projectile speed is 986.17 m/s or Mach 2.90.


    So, uh, yeah. Done~!

    Seriously, there may be a highly tentative and likely completely arbitrary volume, density and KE evaluation of all three of the above fireballs added in the near future, and there's gotta be at least half-a-dozen more decent views of great balls of fire hurtling through the atmosphere in this movie, but that's legitimately all I could muster and receive relevant results from.

    Also, all of the velocity figures obtained and stored in this entry? All low-end estimates of Gamera's projectile velocity, though these results are also the only figures I've derived from the fireballs themselves in the entire trilogy, so at the very least they're useful for providing a direct analysis on the technique, while also establishing a healthy minimum should the higher estimates collapse in validity under further scrutiny.


    Gamera III: Revenge of Iris (1999)
    Speed (Heisei Gamera, Projectile): Mach 2.90 [Fireball #3] - Mach 3.69 [Fireball #1] - Mach 5.67 [Fireball #2]
  6. Unanticipated part deux of long-awaited Part Deux, ladies and gents~


    4# - Destructive Firepower (Legion Flower)

    Last, and definitely not least.

    The real danger manifesting from the invasion of the Symbiotic Legion is two-fold; the Queen is perhaps the most immediately and viscerally apparent, as a malevolent daikaiju, but the even more destructive and potentially dangerous to life on Earth is the method by which the extraterrestrial species transports itself off-world after consuming local resources: the deflowering of these massive, plant-like organisms.

    Two key examples appear in the film to demonstrate the sheer magnitude of danger that the Legion Flower poses: a hypothetical computer simulation and, unfortunately for the city of Sendai, a practical display in real life.

    Sendai (Practical Display)


    (visual for post-Legion deflowering Gamera stance; using full-body Gamera size; source for Heisei Gamera height)

    Treating the crater as an ellipsoid (calculator link), the volume result I obtained was 91,722,441.78 m^3.

    Energy value is, as the current standard for generic nuke-esque explosions in fiction within the OBD, 69 J/cm^3.

    91,722,441.78*1,000,000*69 = 6.328848483e+15 J or 1.51 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Not all that high of an up compared to the ceiling of the Legion Queen's own electromagnetic energy projection seen in the Part #1 entry.

    Heisei Gamera, as seen in the pre-spoiler image links and its body at ground zero of the crater basin, was in point-blank range of the Legion Flower at the moment of explosion. As we know from the climax of this film and the existence of the third feature of the Heisei trilogy, Gamera manages to survive this attack with its form almost completely intact.

    But I would not consider this necessarily valid as a recognised durability feat for the turtle daikaiju. Gamera does indeed emerge from this point-blank explosion with its physical shape unchanged; however, the Sendai explosion forcibly rendered it into a comatose state for at least a day or two, and it only revived its constitution so quickly (or even at all) almost entirely due to external criteria being met that would be otherwise unavailable in a standard vs scenario.

    Sapporo (Computed Hypothesis)

    However, as I mentioned before, while Sendai remains the only metropolitan area to be actually destroyed in its entirety by a Legion Flower, it was not the only city targeted in the film from which we can obtain and interpret possible results for the same intended scenario.

    In the first half of the film Sapporo, largest city of the island of Hokkaido, was the urban area initially targeted by our silicate hivemind antagonists for their nefarious-by-human-standards transportation scheme; while ultimately Gamera managed to negate the threat, there was sufficient time between his arrival and the Legion Flower blooming for the human protagonists to run a computer simulation in detailing the probable environmental damage to be caused by the Legion Flower's release.

    We get a reference to a 6 km destruction radius by one of the protagonists, but I'll deal with a more precise figure, namely the last number we see on the screen before the simulation crashes from (presumably) calculation intensity: 5439 metres.

    How do I know that 5439 is in reference to the immediate AoE? The kanji characters seen on the top-left corner of that tab, 半径, translate into English as literally "half-diameter", or radius.

    Which brings me to my uncertainty regarding the final step of this calculation: the presence of those two kanji, while confirming they're in reference to the explosion AoE, doesn't assuage me that it is explicitly referencing the radius of the fireball we know to be produced by the effect. This screen, however, is strongly supportive, in my opinion, of the fireball interpretation: the kanji standalone translates to district, section and/or ward. If we focus in on the top-left corner of the screen, beside the 93.9%, we see 中央区: this translates to chūō-ku or "central ward": in the middle of the page list, there's a link referring to Sapporo's chūō-ku: almost certainly the "downtown area" referenced in the film itself by the male protagonist. According to Wikipedia, Sapporo's central district covers 46.42 km^2. 93.9% of that surface would've been completely destroyed by the Legion Flower in a timespan of ~30 seconds, following the simulation.

    In any case, "fireball radius" will be my personal interpretation of 半径 in the context of this particular feat. If evidence of a contradictory nature comes to light, I'll happily take down this entire sub-section of the entry.

    A 5.439 km fireball radius, if we follow SD.net's nuke effects calculator and treat the blast as a "ground-contact airburst" (explosion released in proximity to the ground, thus reflecting upwards and inflating fireball radius beyond actual yield indication) would approximate roughly to 163.21 megatons of TNT equivalent at the bare minimum.

    A much more impressive figure to serve as the absolute ceiling of Heisei Gamera's corporeal survivability/endurance rating, but one that is much more contestable.

    5# - Attack Speed (Legion Queen's Tendrils)

    I mentioned in the Part #1 entry of this film calc coverage of the 'secret weapon' possessed by the Legion Queen should its standard instrument of choice, its conical proboscis, should be physically removed from its body: a 'nest' of energy-composed tendrils becomes visible from the proboscis stump, flaring bright red in ominous warning alongside the LQ's eyes.

    These nasty appendages number in the low dozens at the least, can extend for hundred of metres to possibly a couple kilometres individually, are extremely flexible and possess significant penetrative power in their own right (possibly augmented by thermal surges/pulses): capable of casually piercing through Heisei Gamera from front skin through the entirety of its hardened carapace in the span of individual frames.

    But precisely how fast can they get?

    (source for Heisei Gamera's body width)

    Timespan for the tendril to travel across the screen is 5 frames.

    Gamera II: AoL was filmed at 24 FPS.

    5/24 = 0.21 seconds
    288/0.21 = 1371.43 m/s or Mach 4.03

    Actually slower than the LQ's traditional approach to long-range assault with the electromagnetic beams, albeit not outrageously lower: and I would still say that speedscaling for the energy tendrils is certainly probable.


    Gamera II: Attack of Legion (1996) - Part #2

    Energy Output (Legion Flower): 1.51 [low-end, Sendai crater scaling] - 163.21 megatons [high-end, Sapporo simulation yield] of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Legion Queen's Energy Tendrils): Mach 4.03


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26674
  7. The much-delayed Part Deux of the whomptastic Heisei Gamera trilogy!

    My personal favourite out of the bunch (typically, Gamera III gets most of the critical acclaim, and it's a damn good daikaiju flick for sure, but II inches out just based on how fun the entire alien invasion experience feels; almost Showa-esque, while never abandoning the darker and more conflicting tones of the Heisei era.)


    1# - Flight Speed (Legion Queen)

    The Legion Queen is, effectively, the 'face' of the extraterrestrial silicon-base symbiotic hivemind formally termed as the Legion: an it's a face you be well acquainted with by the end of this blog, and she(?) receives the lion's share of the calcuable displays of this film.

    First off, the reveal of the Queen's existence is basically a feat in of itself: after Gamera successfully halts the first Legion cosmos-seeding operation which threatened to annihilate most of Sapporo (more on that later), the alien leader emerges from debris and flies southward, eager to redouble efforts in producing more Legion grunts and absorb more electromangetic energy to fuel further Legion-into-space missions.

    39:44 - Legion Queen still visible from a human's PoV (appears to bethe view of the two main characters seeing the emerging LQ) from downtown Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    39:59 - JSDF pilots observing LQ; all three objects located in the Tsugaru Strait.

    The premise is that of a simple, as-the-crow-flies distance and speed calculation.

    Assuming that the Legion Queen has flown as far as the centre of the Tsugaru Strait by 39:59, the distance travelled would be roughly 168.252 kilometres.

    Feat timespan would be 15 seconds.

    168.252/15 = 11.22 km/s or Mach 32.97

    High hypersonic velocities for Heisei-era Gamera daikaiju in flight is not unheard of (see the previous blog entry), but there is a bit of a snag on this one: there is a jump-cut present here at 39:50; albeit, a jump-cut where the two sequences (LQ emerging and escaping Sapporo, aircraft spot LQ) are immediately following one another.

    2# - Legion Queen's Electromagnetic Beams

    Destructive Firepower

    This next calc is actually been on the back-burner for even longer than the rest of this blog entry: I actually originally devised it, right down to energy results, in April of last year, purely on a curious whim as to the final tally after rewatching Attack of Legion for the first time. At that time, I was still in the midst of devising my compendium for Toho Films, and sort of left on the proverbial shelf to dust away.

    But finally, I've reached coverage of the film proper, so I get to post this feat up: unfortunately, I was still in the mindset of writing down my calc work on paper rather than typing on Word back then, and I've appeared to lost the original page. Still, I've kept the original crater scaling, and it's such a basic feat to evaluate that it'd merely take a few minutes at most to cover!

    (source for Heisei Gamera's shell length)

    I was confused at first as to why I had only provided measurements for the horizontal diameter and depth of the Legion Queen's destructive craters: I now suspect that, given the highly circular perimeter of all three craters, that I went with the assumption that length = width in all three cases.

    For the time being, due mostly to laziness I confess, I'm sticking with my original opinion. I probably should get around to maximising accuracy and determining the vertical diameter(s), though...

    Still treating the crater basins as ellipsoids (which doesn't favour my current proposal at all, lol), using this calculator.

    Crater Basin #1 (Red/Dark Blue Lines)

    The volume should be 48,026.24 m^3.

    Now, the relative cleanliness of the crater basins, along with the noticeable emission of a light substance, indicates a significantly energetic event as a result of each beam attack: I cannot 100% conclude whether it's dust (suggesting pulverisation) or steam (implying vapourisation), though thermal signatures and the brighter colouration of the emission has me suspect the latter; thus, I'll employ the low-end - high-end spectrum.


    The energy value for pulverisation of rock is 214.35 J/cm^3.

    48,026.24*1,000,000*214.35 = 1.029442454e+13 J or 2.46 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    The energy value for vapourisation of (granite) rock is 25,700 J/cm^3.

    48,026.24*1,000,000*25,700 = 1.234274368e+15 J or 295 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Crater Basin #2 (Orange/Light Blue Lines)

    The volume should be 63,238.52 m^3.


    63,238.52*1,000,000*214.35 = 1.355517676e+13 J or 3.24 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    63,238.52*1,000,000*25,700 = 1.625229964e+15 J or 388.44 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    Crater Basin #3 (Wine Red/Purple Lines)

    The volume should be 217,887.01 m^3.


    217,887.01*1,000,000*214.35 = 4.670408059e+13 J or 11.16 kilotons of TNT equivalent.


    217,887.01*1,000,000*25,700 = 5.599696157e+15 J or 1.34 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    These energy blasts were sufficiently capable of shearing through even Heisei Gamera's shell plating with direct impact, though the giant turtle can sustain at least a couple such blasts and remain in fighting condition.


    (source for Legion Queen body length)

    I will admit that I am not entirely certain what pertains to "body length" in the context of the front end of the LQ: I presumed it measured from the tip of her proboscis to the end of her tail, but it could very well be from the tip of her curved horn. I don't know.

    The timespan for this feat is 3 frames.

    Gamera II was filmed at 24 FPS.

    3/24 = 0.125 seconds
    220.16/0.125 = 1761.28 m/s or Mach 5.18

    Strong probability that both Gamera's fireballs and the LQ's energy tendrils (which are hidden beneath the proboscis and only emerge once the latter is damaged beyond function) can be speedscaled to this feat.

    3# - Burrowing/Kinetic Energy

    Following its initial skirmish with Gamera at Sendai Airport, which resulted in a pretty sound victory for the alien, the Legion Queen makes for a swift departure from the vicinity of the now-doomed city area, about to be irradiated by massive amounts of energy WITH EXTREME PREJUDICE, only it's after having had its wings clipped earlier, courtesy of jet fighter missiles.

    The solution? Go underground! Really, really fast!

    59:15 - Excavation begins.
    59:18 - The LQ has completely submerged.

    Forgive me, but the very tip of the horn is clipped out of the scaled screencap.

    Now, I'm assuming that in the feat duration, the LQ has successfully dug a hole of at least exactly equal dimensions to its own body size: namely, that the hole is 140 metres tall x 160 metres high x ~100 metres wide.

    Treating said hole as a generic lxhxw 3D shape.

    160*140*99.64 = 2,231,936 m^3

    Two energy values will be adopted: low-end will be the Sedan crater's 69 J/cm^3 for creating a mostly unfragmented hole in the ground in seconds with enormous energy output; high-end is 120 J/cm^3, which we apply for action(s) equivalent to a diamond-tipped drill against rock.


    2,231,936*1,000,000*69 = 1.54003584e+14 J or 36.81 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    However, we need to factor in the duration necessary to complete the hole, to determine the per second output:

    36.81/3 = 12.27 kilotons per second.


    2,231,936*1,000,000*120 = 2.6783232e+14 J or 64.01 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    64.01/3 = 21.34 kilotons per second.

    This should probably apply to the durability of the LQ itself, and at least the durability of Heisei Gamera's shell (which couldn't be broken via brute strength).


    In typing out the first part of the last calc, I reached the dreaded character limit, so I'm going to have to do the old carryover routine once again. So, eyes peeled on the next entry!

    Gamera II: Attack of Legion (1996) - Part 1
    Speed (Legion Queen, Flight): Mach 32.97
    Energy Output (Legion Queen's Proboscis Beams): 11.16 kilotons [low-end] - 1.34 megatons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Proboscis Beams): Mach 5.18
    Energy Output (Legion Queen, Burrowing): 12.2 [low-end] - 21.34 kilotons [high-end] (per second output) of TNT equivalent.


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26675
  8. And so begins the critically vaunted Heisei chapter of the Gamera franchise!

    Not all that much to be covered in terms of calcuable feats this time around though, surprisingly enough.


    1# - Gamera's Jet-Fuelled Bonanza



    The feat in question, summarised in four screencaps.

    46:09 - Gamera breaks the water's surface.
    46:10 - End of the sequence.

    (Source for Heisei Gamera's height; technically, Gamera's legs are tucked inside its shell due to the jet propulsion, but I factored 'extra' pixel length to compensate for that accordingly.)

    The timespan of the sequence was 1 second.

    Therefore, Gamera's velocity was 1516.67 m/s or Mach 4.46.

    Kinetic Energy

    This KE evaluation specifically focuses on the impressive fountain of seawater bursting forth as a result of Gamera's jet-propelled ascent.

    The appropriate measurements of the seawater 'cone' at its apex have been detailed inside the above spoiler.

    Volume of a cone =

    In determining the mass of the water 'blast', I need the conical radius as opposed to the diameter.

    133.33/2 = 66.665 metres is the radius.

    (0.33)*3.14*66.665*66.665*283.33 = 1,304,763.85 m^3

    The density of seawater is generally 1020 kg/m^3.

    1,304,763.85*1020 = 1,330,859,127 kg of seawater was blasted upwards.

    In the same timespan as recorded in the velocity calculation (1 second), the water 'blast' reached the full distance of its greatest measurement: namely, its 283.33 metre height.

    Therefore, the speed of the water 'blast' was 283.33 m/s.

    KE: (0.5)*1,330,859,127*283.33*283.33 = 5.341794971e+13 J or 12.77 kilotons of TNT equivalent.

    This doesn't factor in the physical KE being generated by Gamera's own momentum. A very impressive and yet casual display of prowess for the new and hip rendition of our favourite screaming turtle daikaiju.

    2# - Travel Speed

    The second significant feat for calculation purposes is certainly a biggun: I imagine it'll rank up there as one of the most impressive displays of physical prowess in the entire Heisei trilogy.

    To condense a film plot into a hopefully accurate excerpt: main antagonists are the Atlantean-engineered "perfect species", Gyaos, which have reawakened on an offshore Japanese island along with the ocean-slumbering Gamera (another Atlantean project); originally three juvenile specimens survived a cannibalising frenzy from a hatchery of at least hundreds, but Gamera manages to kill two of them about midway through the film. The sole survivor eludes the turtle however, and begins to continually grow as it feeds its vampiric diet, eventually attaining adulthood and (in merchandising) titled "Super Gyaos".

    Super Gyaos and Gamera have a final showdown in Tokyo (of course), which leads to them taking a hell of a flight into the outermost reaches of the Earth's atmosphere.

    The ever-crucial timespan for this extended speed feat:

    1:24:29 - Last sighting of Super Gyaos on the ground pre-ascent, looking up at Gamera (setting off a second prior).
    1:24:30 - Military personnel confirm SG's skyward movement.
    1:24:58 - Gamera & SG have flown high enough for part of Earth's curvature to be visible in the background.
    1:25:01 - SG manages to overtake Gamera in flight and halts the 'ascent' (at this stage, seemingly past any semblance of atmosphere).

    This sequence will be broken down into two phases for calculation: 1:24:29 - 1:24:58 is Phase 1, and by far the more important of the two (given its relatively bulletproof layout for determining legitimate results), while 1:24:58 - 1:25:01 encompasses Phase 2, which is much more questionable as a valid calc at minimum, and which I personally consider to be erroneous, at least through the approach I've done to quantifying it.

    Phase 1 (1:24:29 - 1:24:58)

    WARNING: Scaled image in the below spoiler will most probably be utterly massive. Sorry; it took a lot of blank space both factoring in the sizable screencap and thus to also fit in the full circumference of the necessary circle for determing the extent of planetary curvature.

    (source for Earth's equatorial diameter)

    Ole Faithful 'o mine, the angsize formula, dons its crusty boots.

    I'm scaling both the shell length of Gamera (60 metres; note the shape on the computer screen) and the visible length of Earth curvature here.

    Using the angsize calculator to determine the results.

    Earth curvature
    Angsize: 104.978180635982 degrees
    PoV-Earth distance: 1138.40 kilometres

    Gamera shell
    Angsize: 4.662418130736 degrees
    PoV-Gamera distance: 736.92 metres

    Therefore, the distance between Gamera and Earth was: 1138.40 - 0.73692 = 1137.66 kilometres.

    Unfortunately, there's no clear definition of landmass(es) visible on Earth to indicate a direct altitude for Gamera/Gyaos, so I'm making a major assumption instead and presume that the Gamera-Earth distance = the attained altitude.

    Feat timespan for Phase 1 is 29 seconds.

    1137.66/29 = 39.23 km/s or Mach 115.29

    If considered valid, this would be applicable to the in-atmosphere speed of both Gamera and Super Gyaos, at minimum.

    Phase 2 (1:24:58 - 1:25:01)

    The level of dubious application relating to this part of the overall calc is sufficiently high for me to place the whole part in spoilers, just so readers can skip over it as an inconvience: it's effectively just present here as a reminder to its existence.


    (source for Super Gyaos wingspan | source for Sun diameter)

    Sun diameter
    Angsize: 11.045026189356 degrees
    PoV-Sun distance: 7,199,000 km

    Super Gyaos wingspan
    Angsize: 9.077698921082 degrees
    PoV-Gyaos distance: 1.165 km

    Therefore, the distance between Gyaos and Sol was: 7,199,000 - 1.165 = 7,198,998.835 km

    Placing Gyaos closer to the Sun than the mean position of Mercury by about 50 million km. Yeah.

    Still, to conclude this hypothetical:

    The astronomical unit (AU) is defined as being "...the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun." Generally accepted to be 149,597,870.70 km.

    149,597,870.70 - 7,198,998.835 = 142,398,871.865 km is the travel distance.

    Feat timespan for Phase 2 is 3 seconds.

    142,398,871.865/3 = 47,466,290.62 km/s or 158.33 c

    Double Yeah. Most probable status of Phase 2: outlier.

    Basically, Phase 1 should be good to go; Phase 2 is a presumed no-no.

    3# - Beam Speed

    Gyaos decides to put on one last ligh-er, soundshow for all of the humans lucky enough to have not been inserted forcibly into the livestock role for the flying daikaiju in Tokyo.

    Once again, two distinct halves to the one sequence for calculation.

    Linear Angle

    Gamera: GOTU was filmed at 24 FPS.

    2/24 = 0.08 seconds

    324.26/0.08 = 4053.25 m/s or Mach 11.91

    Sweeping Angle

    A touch more complicated analysis, as this inspects the velocity of the sonic beam being rotated in an arc by Gyaos' pivoting head.

    Created a composite image by layering the screencap of the beginning of the arc over the end of the arc and then cropping the former in half to reveal the beam journey. All editing on the image above done courtesy of GIMP

    The central angle of the motion curve is 71.11?

    Using this calculator, with the linear beam length as our radius, the arc length should be 402.44 metres.

    However, in this instance, the sonic beam actually sweeps back and forth across the arc length, thus doubling the distance.

    402.44*2 = 804.88 metres

    The entire sequence has a timespan of 28 frames.

    28/24 = 1.17 seconds

    804.88/1.17 = 687.93 m/s or Mach 2.02
  9. Continued over from the last blog, as you might've guessed.


    3# - Travel Speed

    Really, this calc is exactly what it says on the tin, so to speak.

    Gamera, after being constantly pressed on an increasingly precarious and potentially fatal defensive against the gravity-induced mutation of Zigra to daikaiju size, in an environment that while isn't disadvantageous for Gamera itself, is the perfect biome for the latter, finally manages to get a firm grasp of the shark alien and swims briskly to the water's surface, and force the fight onto less optimal dry land.

    1:22:28 - Gamera and Zigra, last seen at seafloor level.
    1:23:00 - Gamera and Zigra break through the ocean surface.

    This sequence occurs pretty much within the film's climax, inside the last 15-20 minutes: Zigra had since travelled much deeper waters since what was disclosed in Part #1 of this film coverage, now residing within the Japan Deep, below a depth of 12,300 metres.

    Feat duration is 32 seconds.

    12,300/32 = 384.375 m/s or Mach 1.13

    Completely paltry in a respect, but only in comparison to the single most impressive display of in-atmospheric speed under Showa Gamera's belt (which was only obtained via logical powerscaling at that, not even a direct feat): otherwise, still a decently impressive velocity result even factoring in jet propulsion, given the enormous density disparity between submersion in water and travel through air.

    4# - Destructive Firepower

    Once the vicious fight between Gamera and Zigra was brought onto dry land, barring a few of Zigra's beam tricks, the fight was clearly phasing into the giant turtle's favour, eventually resulting in a decisive usage of thermonuclear flames; a heated triumph to a gradually inevitable loss for the alien daikaiju.

    Incidentally, I believe this may be the single time that Gamera actually managed to finish off its major adversary through its most trademark offensive power in the entire Showa continuity.

    Anyway, a major step-by-step navigation of the burning finish:


    I felt it was a reasonable conjecture to interpret this demonstration of literal firepower as being also a display of vapourisation of the defeated Zigran, as in the entirety of its biomass being reduced to a fine pumice.

    Evaluating the physiology of an extraterrestrial, sapient being of aquatic/amphibious lifestyle that has further undergone significant size augmentation to daikaiju standards as result of exposure to the local planet's gravitational field has a remarkable tendency in hitting a proverbial brick wall when one attempts to determine an explicit and independent comparison in the real world, as it happens!

    However, given the remarkable aesthetic similarities and a somewhat similar environmental background (excluding the obviously troublesome predicament of explaining the "can breathe, survive long-term and clumsily walk on land" aspect) to the shark family of fishes, in an extremely vague and expansive example of congrent evolution at work here, I feel reasonably secure in utilising the physiological knowledge of a shark species' composition as a satisfactory substitute in determining key values of a Zigran's bodily structure: in this case, the calorific energy content of its biomass.

    An (immediately rather preliminary) Google search on sharks and calories lead me to this rather helpful excerpt of a scientific article investigating the energy density profiles of certain organ and fleshy tissues of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias).

    Focusing on the very first paragraph of the extracted article, below "Abstract" but above "Introduction", as well as Table 2, provided within the link roughly one-third down the page, are given figures for the energy density of two particular categories of Carcharodon carcharias tissues: lean muscle and the fatty liver.

    For the sake of brevity, along with simplicity, I'll be exclusively focusing on the energy density contained within the musculature, given it is by far the majority element when discussing a shark's physique: approximately 85% of a specimen from a 'typical' shark species will be composed of muscle.

    Further still, we receive both dm (dry mass) and wm (wet mass) subsets for evaluating the energy density of the muscle tissue. Given that Gamera did not carefully prepare Zigra's still-living body within a clean laboratory with the express purpose of determining the true weight of its pure biomass, to the best of my knowledge, I am inclined to rely on the wm rating; which factors in any fluid contents inside Zigran's body as well as its biomass.

    Energy density for the wm of Carcharodon carcharias muscle tissue is roughly 4.5 kJ g-1 (or 4.5 kJ/gram).

    Zigra weighs 75 metric tons.

    75 metric tons = 75,000 kg

    4.5 kJ/gram = 4500 kJ/kg

    75,000*4500*1000 = 3.375e+11 J or 80.66 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Not really all that impressive by durability standards, given the established precedent for megaton-scale resistance via KE collisions on two separate occasions for Showa Gamera, but Zigra was pretty much near-dead by the time this occurred, and it still took about a minute to complete the process in total. Nonetheless, an impressive display for a surprisingly overlooked move of Gamera's.

    Gamera vs Zigra (1971) - Part 2
    Speed (Gamera, Jet Propulsion [Underwater]): Mach 1.13
    Energy Output (Thermonuclear Flamethrower): 80.66 tons of TNT equivalent


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26479
  10. The final entry for the Showa era of Gamera (given that the actual final film, Gamera: Super Monster, is a glorified 90 minute clip show)!

    I really didn't mind this run through this field of cheese and corn, but I'm also so much happier to run through the Heisei era of Mr. Scary Turtle now: easily some of the best daikaiju films I've ever watched, anyway.


    1# - Seismic Energy (Zigra Spaceship)

    Our protagonists and their father sidekicks are suddenly kidnapped while out on a fishing excursion and teleported into an extraterrestrial craft, submerged on the seabed off the Japanese coast.

    After a brief introduction and explanation for its presence on Earth, the Zigran known as...Zigra, I guess (official name and all that: I figured that Daiei staff were too busy freaking out about bankruptcy to invest in creative names at this stage) through its mind-controlled Earthling servant begins to display the technological prowess of its super-advanced civilisation in an effort to coerce the human population into submission and establish itself as the planetary ruler.

    This is done through the use of a vibration generator of immense scale: earlier in the film, news broadcasting on the radio reported seemingly coincidental instances of Magnitude 12 earthquakes in both Peru and Arabia occurred in a day's span of each other. However, Zigra ups the ante with an unprecedented Magnitude 13 quake, targeted at Tokyo!

    The verbal explanation behind the term magnitude (source, author credentials) in relation to earthquakes by one of the film characters, in conjuction with the film's release date being in 1971, points to the referenced gradient correlating to Richter's scale, as opposed to the more modern and accurate moment magnitude scale.

    This divergence unfortunately yields difficulty in this specific feat, due to the inability of Richter's scale to accurately assess the true energetic output of a quake past Magnitude 8. Since we are being made to handle magnitudes classified as 12 and 13 exclusively in this calculation, I will be making the conscious decision of ignoring the fairly explicit reference to the application of the Richter's scale and instead evaluate as if the feat is actually adhering to the moment magnitude scale.

    I'll be employing the usage of 2 seperate earthquake energy converters for this feat: the reason is simply that both are required in order to determine the total energy output of the Zigran quakes; the former link can only determine the surface wave energy (i.e. only about 1/100-1/10th of the overall output actually generated in an earthquake), while the latter link is unable to quantify the output of earthquakes past a magnitude of 10.5.

    An example of the deficiencies in action:


    So, using the AJDesigner seismometer calculator, a Magnitude 12 earthquake generates a surface wave output of 6.3095734448019e+22 J (15.08 teratons of TNT equi.) and a Magnitude 13 quake emits a surface output of 1.9952623149689e+24 J (476.88 teratons).

    However, as mentioned already, the seismic energy emitted in the form of surface waves only constitutes for approximately 1-10% of the total energy release caused by these vibrations, given that there's zero indication that the Zigran machine utilises exotic mechanics to generate these quakes.


    Surface wave output = 10% of the overall energy release.

    M12: 6.3095734448019e+22*10 = 6.3095734448019e+23 J or 150.80 teratons of TNT equi.

    M13: 1.9952623149689e+24*10 = 1.9952623149689e+25 J or 4.77 petatons of TNT equi.


    Surface wave output = 1% of the overall energy release.

    M12: 6.3095734448019e+22*100 = 6.3095734448019e+24 J or 1.51 petatons of TNT equi.

    M13: 1.9952623149689e+24*100 = 1.9952623149689e+26 J or 47.69 petatons of TNT equi.


    IMPORTANT NOTE: I would not remotely extrapolate from the extraordinarily high results obtained in these seismic feats (low-end or high-end) and equate them to the physical attributes of Zigra, Gamera or any other daikaiju of the related or extended Daiei franchise, in any way, shape or form.

    But it does go to show you just how close to the highest level that these shark alien bastards kept real, when it came to effective colonisation technology.


    2# - Beam Attributes (Zigran Spaceship)

    The personal spacecraft of our cinematic antagonist has but a solitary armament as part of the ship itself: a generic 'maser' energy blaster, with basic destructive properties. Most importantly, it had demonstrated on several occasions some remarkable speed and precision against mobile targets: the velocity on two such feats will be obtained.

    Speed - Feat #1


    34:41 - Spaceship beam is fired.
    34:43 - Spaceship beam reaches jet fighter.

    Note that the spacecraft was not floating at sea level, but rather resting on the seafloor. The one direct reference we receive from the film to indicate its distance from the aircraft is military intel commanding the pilots to set their depth charges at 1200 metres (same intel provider were able to pinpoint the ship's location via coordinates, so it appears to be reliable).

    I'm not overly familiar with depth charge mechanics, and what cursory research I've attempted in order to gleam out details has been largely unsuccessful, so I'm going to rely on a low-end to high-end spectrum here and state:


    1200 metres is the total distance between the spaceship and the jet fighter.

    1200/2 = 600 m/s or Mach 1.76


    1200 metres is the sea level-seafloor distance (assuming that the depth charges only begin to quantify their descent when submerged).

    In this case, we'd also need to determine the altitude of the jet fighter(s) from sea level for a total travelled distance.

    The plane model(s) deployed for the mission were quite clearly F-104 Starfighters: 35,000 feet appears to be the optimal level altitude these planes operate at during combat duty.

    35,000 feet = 10,668 metres

    10,668 + 1200 = 11,868 metres is the total distance.

    11,868/2 = 5934 m/s or Mach 17.44

    Speed - Feat #2

    More of the same, except this time even faster.

    34:49 - Beam fired.
    34:50 - Beam reaches the jet fighter altitude.

    The timespan is actually shorter than 1 second, however; personal count indicated 18 frames between firing and being level with the target.

    18/24 = 0.75 seconds


    1200/0.75 = 1600 m/s or Mach 4.70


    11,868/0.75 = 15,824 m/s or Mach 46.50

    Where these beam speeds lie on the spectrum is almost entirely dependent on confirming the mechanics in which a depth charge perceives and thus initiates the distance mark until detonation.


    We receive a single destructive feat from the spaceship's generic maser mount of calc curiousity:


    So it doesn't completely destroy or even trigger much physical damage to the boulder, but it does exert a very visible thermal signature in the blue-white spectrum, which is indicative of the emitted heat being fairly high temperature-wise.

    ...however, not entirely sure how to progress from here, given the fact that it's taking place while completely submerged underwater, against a substance that isn't exactly flammable by nature. So I'll leave it as a curious footnote, for the time being.


    Character limit has been reached; to be continued.


    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26480
  11. Greetings once again!

    I've reached the penultimate chapter of the Showa era for the Gamera franchise, and amongst many within the jolly giant turtle fandom, somewhat of a 'return to form' in homage to the earlier, more sinister/adult entries before the kitsch and child-centric wholesomeness had overwhelmed the entire framework.

    Jiger is a pretty damn scary daikaiju by Daiei's standards, with an altogether wholly gruesome method to incapacitating and eliminating foes of its own stature, the protagonist duo have been aged up to early adolescence and are certainly a step up in tolerance levels from the last couple of child pairs, a stronger presence of a wider human resistance against adversity that had been largely absent in the last two films, etc.

    Unfortunately, there's relatively minimal in the way of noteworthy feats to calculate in this feature as well, but I'll make do with what's available.


    1# - Destructive Firepower (Jiger's Ultra Heat Waves)

    As it happens, there was really only a single feat in which the results (regardless of whether the numbers coming out were low or high) were actually of any relevance on the wider spectrum of the Showa Gamera series, and more importantly for me, where the final product was worth the work output necessary to reach it.

    Basically, the Ultra Heat Waves are a highly potent energy beam of both thermal and high-frequency acoustic properties. It leaves immense environmental devastation across a fairly sizable radius, significantly charring any structures still standing from the sheer heat emission.

    But exactly how energetic is the 'damage zone' resulting from one of these rays?


    (Source on the 'arterial road' length figure [.PDF document: relevant figure(s) presented in Table 3, page 12])

    Despite the visual indicating a remarkably flat 'surface' representing the destroyed region hit by the UHW, the fact was that high-rise buildings were clearly enveloped within the thermal 'haze' that represented the energy output, so there is a decently high 'ceiling' to the UHW blast.

    The film is set in Osaka 1970 (the storyline primarily centres around the preparations for Expo '70, and the immense risk posed by the rampaging Jiger once it reaches mainland Japan); generously assuming that none of the office buildings within the affected area were constructed/completed prior to 1965, Japanese law decreed that building height was capped to 31 metres. I'll be using that as our 'height' value for obtaining a volume for the damaged region.

    Treating the damaged zone as an ellipsoid (following the measurements given in the spoilered image):


    This is using 7.5 metres as our arterial road width.

    Using the calculator given in the link immediately above, the volume result should be 374,207.22 m^3.


    This is using 9 metres as our arterial road width.

    Volume result should be 538,850.09 m^3.

    From here, we get the sketchy half of my assumptive method for this calc: we are informed of the UWH's specific capabilities by highly unfortunate media personnel. However, the visuals relate a different (though ultimately no less harrowing) story to the consequential effects of Jiger's ray exposure. Combined with the fact that most structures within the vicinity of the UWH appear to remain structurally intact, I'm inclined to side with the visual evidence rather than reporter statements.

    Therefore, I'll follow the given energy guidelines for the basic requirement of evapourating the water contents and dried flesh of a typical human body in assessing the strength of Jiger's ray. Enormously beneficial for me is the existence of this scientific journal article, which oh-so-neatly disects the standard sci-fi question of "how much energy do you need to disentegrate a person?" into individual physiological segments.

    Reducing a person of average weight (78 kg) to their skeletal structure would take approximately a minimum output of 2.903e+6 joules.

    Here comes the real questionable element I was talking about earlier: my proposal is to assume that every cubic metre of the region affected by the UHW has been struck by energy outputs of a comparable magnitude. Seems reasonable enough of a suggestion to my exhausted brain right now, given how casual the side-effect is with almost immediate exposure to the ray.

    Body volume for the average human is 0.0664 m^3.

    2.903e+6/0.0664 = 4.372e+6 joules would be uniformly hitting inside a volume of 1 m^3.


    4.372e+6*374,207.22 = 1.636033966e+12 J or 391.02 tons of TNT equivalent.


    4.372e+6*538,850.09 = 2.355852593e+12 J or 563.06 tons of TNT equivalent.


    Not quite as high as I was originally envisioning working out this calculation, but decent results nonetheless: plus, there's always a high probability that one can powerscale Jiger's energy beam to similar energy attacks by other Showa Daiei daikaiju.

    The UHW's effects on Gamera are a little uncertain on a purely energetic standpoint: it doesn't necessarily cause significant outward damage (though still enough to halt the movement of even a fully-withdrawn Gamera), but rather the emitted frequencies accompanying the beam are the emphasised danger, capable of shattering the giant turtle's eardrums and forcing Gamera to employ drastic measures in order to counter the move (namely, telephone poles jammed directly into both sides of the head; he's pretty fucking hardcore, that Gamera!).


    Gamera vs Jiger (1970)
    Energy Output (Jiger, Acoustic/Thermal)*: 391.02 [low-end] - 563.06 tons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.

    * = Also applies to the physical durability of the flesh and carapace of Showa Gamera; likely Jiger's own body can resist this energy output as well, though that's unconfirmed.

  12. Continuing on with the cosmic adventure of the extraterrestrial brain-eaters and their pet ninja dinosaur-dog...


    2# - Destructive Firepower (Gamera vs. Asteroid)

    Extremely early into the spaceship voyage, Akio and Tom narrowly escape mortal peril from a direct-course collision with a bollide when Gamera suddenly appears! It slams headfirst into the asteroid, not only completely halting all forward momentum, but managing to both reverse its course and actually splinter the bollide in half, hurtling at even faster velocities than before in opposite directions.

    I consider it a fair judgement to equate the output imparted by Gamera to the kinetic energy of the asteroid as a minimum figure.

    Now, in regards to the asteroid's size, we unfortunately receive zero direct comparative shots with its full diameter to either the spaceship or Gamera itself. So instead, I'm going to low-ball and suggest that, from eyeballing the bollide from the 'headbutt' image, is 30 metres in length (half of Gamera's height).

    Per the SD.net calculator, and assuming from visuals that the asteroid's composition is of nickel-iron, the mass will be in the range of 111,260 metric tons.

    111,260 metric tons = 111,260,000 kg.

    Average orbital velocity of an asteroid around our Sun is 25 km/s.

    KE: (0.5)*111,260,000*25,000*25,000 = 3.476875e+16 J or 8.31 megatons of TNT equivalent.

    Hard to say how exactly this result would apply to the stats of any of the daikaiju of this era of the franchise, or if it can even be scaled to them at all in a reasonable fashion, given the rather extraordinary environment the feat occurs in, compared to conventional battlefields.

    Tentatively, I would suggest that the physical durability of most or all of the Showa Daiei daikaiju would be appropriate: at the very least, extra-durable appendages such as Guiron's blade (which could effortlessly reflect back energy attacks as concentrated as Gyaos sonic rays, which could slice through Gamera's regular flesh like hot butter) and Gamera's own shell (especially given that the feat was performed through Gamera's exposed headbutt).

    3# - Speed (Jumping!)

    Quite a few athletic leaps and bounds are performed in this film, both from Gamera and Guiron.



    Our adorable guardian of Terra manages to intercept a marauding Space Gyaos wreaking havoc on the planet's surface by vaulting in mid-air, succeeding in slicing off an entire wing of the airborne beast in the process.

    (source for Guiron's body length)

    Feat timespan was 20 frames.

    This was filmed at 24 FPS.

    20/24 = 0.83 seconds

    106.25/0.83 = 128.01 m/s

    Not bad at all for bodily movement of a strictly terrestrial daikaiju, but slow by the standards of aerial daikaiju of the series, even before the heightened values in the first blog covering this film was shown. You could potentially argue a high-end of that since Guiron was able to perfectly intercept Space Gyaos in flight and the ridiculous level of timing and accuracy required for a much slower creature to pull off a similarly athletic feat, that it could also scale up to the high-hypersonic+ speeds exhibited by Gamera and Gyaos within an atmosphere.



    Basic premise, as you can see. Gamera leaps into the air to crash down on Guiron's back.

    (source for Gamera's height)

    I'll be using both the measured altitude into the air and Gamera's physical height as the collective distance crossed in the feat's duration. My justification for the extra 60 metres also passed is the fact that none of the background visible in the first link immediately below the "Gamera" sub-header is present in the second link, suggesting that the second link's view was at least a full Gamera's worth above the ground from its bottom.

    88.80 + 60 = 148.80 metres is the total jumping distance.

    Feat timespan was 3 seconds.

    148.80/3 = 49.60 m/s.

    Nothing special; you can probably scale up Gamera's vertical leap to at least a comparable velocity to Guiron's angular jump, though the lack of demonstrable 'tagging' of an aerial daikaiju has me hesitate in making the same hypersonic+ suggestion as I did above.

    I could derive KE values for both beasts, but they both score well under the acceptable threshold that I've obtained from destructive feats that aren't reliant on the extremely dodgy weight estimates provided from the official sources.


    Gamera vs Guiron (1969) - Part 2
    Energy Output (Asteroid, Kinetic)*: 8.31 megatons of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Guiron, Physical Bound)**: 128.01 m/s
    Speed (Gamera, Physical Bound): 49.60 m/s

    * = Should also apply to the physical durability of all of the Showa-era Gamera daikaiju (and, by proxy, much of their offensive aresnal also).

    ** = Can potentially scale to speeds of upwards past the high hypersonic bracket (Mach 10+), thanks to casually intercepting Space Gyaos in flight in the process of performing the feat.


    Part #1: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26278
  13. The fourth entry of the Showa era of Gamera films is a real mixed-bag of the franchise, IMHO: its got easily the most exotic and interesting background out of the series locations, being the only movie set on a foreign planet, has one of the more intriguing storylines (involving brain-eating humanoid extraterrestrials!), the antagonist daikaiju (Guiron) is equal parts adorable (a dog-lizard-sword creature with ninja skillz!) and badass (slices up Gyaos like shish-kebab, has a fun battle with Gamera)...

    ...all of this goodwill is nearly completely offset by possessing the single least-trained and knuckle-smashing-against-brick-wall aggravating pair of children protagonists of the entire series, bar none. They make the tubby of the 1954 debut seem like a freaking Toho veteran in comparison. Just, I don't even know if this is a common sentiment beyond "well, Wombat, all of the Daiei children suck as actors!" or if this is some borderline lunacy I am the only one to notice, but these motherfuckers...


    1# - Travel Speed (Terran Spaceship)

    Our intrepid explorers of the cosmos, hereby christened as Team Dumbfuck International (one's American, the other's Japanese: a starring interracial pair of male children becomes the Daiei trademark at Gamera vs Viras until Gamera vs Zigra), happen across a landed UFO while cycling with the Japanese kid (Akio)'s infinitely less aggravating little sister. As morons are wont to act, the boys decide to board the vessel without supervision or even being certain it's empty in the first place, and almost begin fucking around with various buttons...


    13:42 - The last view provided of the spaceship while it's definitely within Earth's atmosphere.
    13:58 - The boys realise that they are within 'outer space'.

    Now, of course, there is a fairly significant quibble to be addressed before I can go ahead with the calculation: the fact that there isn't a single universal altitude boundary which constitutes as reaching 'outer space'. Therefore, we're off to the low-high end spectrum!


    The common consensus for the boundary that upon reaching a person could state they've reached 'outer space' is the Krmn line:


    Feat timespan is 16 seconds.

    100/16 = 6.25 km/s or Mach 18.37


    However, Earth's atmosphere extends well past 100 km in altitude: the exosphere layer, where air is so thin and gas molecules are so far dispersed that it becomes nearly indistinguishable from the vacuum of space itself, is generally agreed to be the limits of Earth's atmosphere. Specifically, most scientists cite 10,000 kilometres as the 'ceiling' of the atmosphere, so to speak.

    10,000/16 = 625 km/s or Mach 1836.73

    Gamera seemed to travel this distance in a roughly equal timespan and even managed to keep up with the UFO in space for some time afterwards (until it accelerated to max velocity).


    The spaceship goes on a extraterrestrial trek to return to its homeworld, the mysterious planet of Terra. Located on the 'dark side' of our local star Sol, in an orbit parallel to Earth's, it's a pretty hefty distance to cross, even if not necessarily in the context of deep space.

    Logically, the Earth-Terra distance should therefore approximate to 2 AU, given that AU (astronomical unit) equates to the 'mean distance between Earth and the Sun', and that the spaceship has to cross an equivalent distance to reach Terra past Sol.

    Now, the real trick to this calculation is determining the duration factor, as no explicit timeframe or timespan is provided within the film; plus, as helpful as the arrangement of successive sequences can be in determining the likelihood of their occurrence after the previous segment in a temporal context without explicit evidence presented to the contrary, it's still not a 100% reliable method by any means without outright validity provided by the film's own narrative.

    Bear with me on this one please:


    04:43~07:15 - The kids, all in their pyjamas and still clearly nighttime outside, spy the Terran spaceship descending down through Earth's atmosphere and excitedly decide to investigate immediately. Akio's mother interrupts their escapade however and tells them to go to bed, which they do. They plan to investigate the UFO tomorrow.

    11:29~13:42 - Kids locate the landed UFO the next day; the boys enter the spaceship to investigate further, only to be abducted by the automated craft and launched into space.

    18:22~19:22 - Akio's sister Tomoko rushes home to their mom to alert her of what's happened, only to be brushed aside by skepticism. At this stage, both Akio and Tom are far enough into space that Earth is no longer visible (the scene immediately before this).

    20:02 - Spaceship has landed at Terra; the way the scene had jump-skipped between the two planets suggests to me that these aren't necessarily occurring immediately after one another, but later scenes are suggestive of a minimal lapse of time between events throughout the film.

    42:17~43:28 - The American kid (Tom)'s mother Elza arrives at Akio's family home to collect her son after a sleepover, only to find out that they've yet to return from their 'cycling trip'; believing it to be simply a case of not yet wanting to leave, Elza accepts Akio's mom's offer of letting Tom spend another night at the household. In between this and the spaceship landing mentioned above, the film was solely situated at Terra.


    With all that mumbo-jumbo out of the way, I decided upon these measures as the most appropriate attempt(s) to discern an exo-atmospheric velocity range.


    Spaceship flight takes 12 hours.

    12 hours = 43,200 seconds
    2 AU = 299,195,741.40 km

    299195741.40/43200 = 6925.83 km/s or 0.021 c [2.1% SoL (Speed of Light)]


    Spaceship flight takes 9 hours.

    9 hours = 32,400 seconds

    299195741.40/32400 = 9234.44 km/s or 0.031 c [3.1% SoL]


    Spaceship flight takes 6 hours.

    6 hours = 21,600 seconds

    299195741.40/21600 = 13,851.65 km/s or 0.046 c [4.6% SoL]


    Spaceship flight takes 3 hours.

    3 hours = 10,800 seconds

    299195741.40/10800 = 27,703.31 km/s or 0.092 c [9.2% SoL]

    Impressive all-around, no matter which way you look at it, but I'd personally recommend working with the mid-end value mostly, and probably even the high-end; I sincerely doubt it took half a day for the boys' mothers not seeing them even a hint, with a very distraught girl insisting they were kidnapped, and still be as relaxed as they were at the 40 min. mark of the movie, but that's my perspective.

    In terms of speedscaling: this journey was performed in large part by the spaceship suddenly accelerating to maximum velocity, to the point that the spacecraft clearly overtook Gamera (who was previously neck-to-neck with the ship in speed) and trailed it beyond human sight. So I cannot scale Gamera to anything above the mid-end value.

    However, in a manner of a couple more hours, Gamera does also reach the surface of planet Terra to rescue the boys, so in my estimation, it would be a safe bet to scale Gamera to the 12 hour timespan provided above.


    A whole lotta talkin' has already caused me to reach my character limit here, so it's time to clean up the results and make a dash to the next blog entry!


    Gamera vs Guiron (1969) - Part 1
    Speed (Terran Spaceship, Intra-Atmosphere Flight)*: Mach 18.37 [low-end] - Mach 1836.73 [high-end]
    Speed (Terran Spaceship, Exo-Atmosphere Flight)**: 0.021 c [lowest-end] - 0.031 c [lower-end] - 0.046 c [mid-end] - 0.092 c [high-end]

    * = Should also apply to the in-atmosphere flight speed of Gamera and other airborne daikaiju featured in the same film(s).

    ** = The lowest-end and lower-end values should also apply to the exo-atmosphere (outer space) speed of Gamera and other spacefaring daikaiju featured in the same film(s).

    Part #2: http://www.narutoforums.com/blog.php?b=26279
  14. Onto the fourth entry of the Showa era series for our cuddly turtle daikaiju!

    Gamera vs Viras could be considered somewhat of a milestone in this particular chapter of Gamera's cinematic history: while Daiei has always promoted the Showa Gamera series as a child-oriented counterpart to Toho's production line, this film really marks the turning point in which the darker and more menacing elements of Gamera as a character as well as the gloomier atmosphere typified from its 1965 debut are phased out in favour of the more blatantly fluffy and kitsch tone that the Showa entries have become infamous for amongst casual viewers (particularly those Westerners viewing the dubbed versions or MST3K fans watching the well-known riffed editions) and the wider tokosatsu fanon in the modern day.

    Perhaps as a form of divine punishment for this direction, I would argue for vs Viras to be easily the weakest Gamera film of the Showa era (excluding the 1981 glorified clip show Gamera: Super Monster).

    Still, quite a few feats to quantify from this time!


    1# - Travel Speed (Spaceship)

    From the very onset of the film, in its prologue, we receive a quite substantial speed feat to document and analyse.

    Our antagonists of the week, the extraterrestrial cephalopod-esque species known as the Viras, arrive within our local space from a distant star system, eager to reap Earth's extensive natural resources for their own benefit and establish an interstellar colony, in particular drawn by the supply of nitrogen gas, vital to their health.

    1:31 - First clear shot of the Earth from the spaceship's PoV; note the distinctive shape of mainland Australia.
    1:39 - Last clear shot of the Earth before the sequence ends.

    Thus, the feat duration is 8 seconds.


    4000 kilometres is the approximate east-west diameter of the Australian mainland.

    This will be employing the usage of the angsize formula (calculator link).

    Image #1

    Angsize: 13.31276053855 degrees
    PoV Distance: 17,138 kilometres

    Image #2

    Angsize: 18.775222037858 degrees
    PoV Distance: 12,097 kilometres

    17,138 - 12,097 = 5041 kilometres is the travel distance.

    5041/8 = 630.125 km/s or Mach 1851.80

    The Viras spaceship is matched in cosmic velocity by a space-faring Gamera, plus the subsequent film will solidify the latter's status as a true cosmonaut of impressive distance, so it's reasonable enough to conclude that our jet-powered turtle is powerscaled to this speed in outer space only.

    2# - Beam Speed


    (source for Showa Gamera's height)

    The first spoilered image features Gamera in somewhat of an awkward and potentially perspective-skewed position, so you'll have to pardon me for that. I'll probably replace it in favour of the Gamera/Viras comparison seen later on.

    The feat duration is an aforementioned 7 frames.

    This movie was shot at 24 FPS.

    7/24 = 0.29 seconds
    153.41/0.29 = 529 m/s or Mach 1.55

    ...just a tad bit slower than the cosmic travel velocity. The beams do function within atmospheric boundaries as well as in outer space, so I'd certainly consider it heavily questionable and personally skeptical of simply attempting to speed-scale the Viras beam to their ships' speed, but to speed-scale to projectile velocities of preceding daikaiju such as Gyaos and Barugon would certainly not be so out of the ordinary, I would imagine.

    3# - Projectile Kinetic Energy

    Gamera throws a large boulder at the incoming aggregate/giant Viras, Viras promptly penetrates through the rock but only forms a ring out of it, halting all momentum and crashing into the ground.


    (source for aggregate Viras height/length)

    Treating the boulder as an ellipsoid, and assuming that the width was half the size of the height, I obtained a volume of 1891.02 m^3.

    Assuming rock composition is granite, typical density values range at 2600-2800 kg/m^3.


    1891.02*2600 = 4,916,652 kg

    Feat duration: 4 frames

    4/24 = 0.17 seconds
    20.21/0.17 = 118.88 m/s

    Kinetic energy: (1/2)*mass*velocity^2 [reached image limit]

    KE: (0.5)*4,916,652*118.88*118.88 = 3.47421801e+10 J or 8.30 tons of TNT equivalent.


    1891.02*2800 = 5,294,856 kg

    With the high-end estimate, I am going to presume that since we don't actually get to see the full distance between Gamera and Viras at the moment of the feat's occurrence, that the total distance was equal to the boulder's length (32.97 metres).

    32.97/0.17 = 193.94 m/s

    KE: (0.5)*5,294,856*193.94*193.94 = 9.957697761e+10 J or 23.80 tons of TNT equivalent.

    Not too shabby of a result range; wasn't expecting even a high-end to reach cityblock-busting output.

    4# - Travel Speed (Gamera)

    Last and certainly not least in terms of work: Gamera is impaled through its softer underbelly (still reinforced plating, mind you, so an impressive showing for Viras) by its adversary's 'horn', but manages to fight through the pain and fly sufficiently high into the air that Viras begins to freeze over entirely, becoming fragile enough to (offscreen) disentegrate upon making contact with the ocean.

    I propose two alternative methods to determining the speed at which Gamera reached maximum altitude, given we are not provided distinct indicators of its atmospheric location.

    Method #1

    This follows the ascending route of the journey directly, through Viras beginning to exhibit outward signs of bodily freezing.

    My foundation for this particular calculation, given the vital importance of the phenomenon of wind chill in inducing hypothermic symptoms and reactions and how quickly the freezing process occurred for Viras, will be to use the subtropical jet stream as my approximate reference point for the altitude reached by Gamera. This 'column' of high-speed winds manifest at the tropopause, or the tropospheric-stratospheric boundary.

    The subtropical jet stream is estimated to be approximately 13 km above sea level.

    1:18:05 - Gamera begins lift-off.
    1:18:30 - Viras starts to exhibit signs of visible freezing.

    Feat duration is therefore 25 seconds.

    13,000/25 = 520 m/s or Mach 1.53

    Method #2

    Somewhat of a novel approach for me, but extremely basic at the same time, is using Viras' descending route instead: application of freefall to determine its original altitude.

    1:19:16 - Viras begins the freefall
    1:19:46 - Viras hits sea level

    30 seconds is our timespan here. Firing up a freefall calculator and inputting that into the time tab, I arrived at a freefall distance of 4412.99 metres.

    For determining ascending velocity:

    4412.99/25 = 176.52 m/s

    Interesting range of values there. I imagine people will feel more comfortable with the freefall 'low-end', though.


    Gamera vs Viras (1968)
    Speed (Viras Spaceship, Flight)*: Mach 1851.80
    Speed (Viras Spaceship, Blaster)**: Mach 1.55
    Energy Output (Projectile KE): 8.30 [low-end] - 23.80 tons [high-end] of TNT equivalent.
    Speed (Gamera, Flight)***: 176.52 m/s [Method #2] - Mach 1.53 [Method #1]

    * = Should also apply to the exo-atmospheric velocity of Gamera and other spacefaring daikaiju in this film series.
    ** = A minimum velocity figure; the spaceship blasters can most probably be scaled to the speeds exhibited by the attacks of Barugon [Mach 7+] and Gyaos [Mach 2+].
    *** = Applies as a minimum on the in-atmosphere velocity of Gamera's flying.
  15. Mostly known as the film debut of what has easily become the iconic antagonist of the Gamera franchise, the sound-spittin' flying daikaiju Gyaos.

    Oh, and the return of aggravating chubby kids as the human main characters. And this one isn't even close to being the worst...


    1# - Beam Speed (Gyaos Sonic Beam)

    You're going to see quite a couple of these being covered. In fact, I'm fairly confident these beam velocities will comprise the entirety of the entry.

    Basically, Showa Gyaos' primary weapon of choice outside of melee range is its ability to generate extremely high-frequency supersonic waves (via adaptational evolution of its vertebrae into a bi-forked structure that serves as an oscillating device to produce the vibrations), concentrated into a linear 'ray' of acoustic energy that slices through virtually all conventional materials like a knife, including Gamera's unshelled flesh.

    Feat #1

    EDIT: The disputed nature of the feat has been referenced within the comments section; for the time being I will NOT be recognising the value derived from this specific result as part of the velocity spectrum for Gyaos' Sonic Beam, until I discover a method for calculating this feat which is more valid. All relevant information will remain on the blog, contained inside the spoiler immediately beneath this bolded paragraph.

    The first feat of note is a classic demonstration of the Gyaos Sonic Beam in action: a large team of world-renowned scientists are assembled on-board a transport helicopter to investigate unusual volcanic and seismic activity within the southern reaches of the Pacific Ring of Fire, centering on a recent eruption of Mt. Fuji. They catch sight of a teal bioluminescent glow from a smaller mountain adjacent to Fuji, only to be struck directly by a Sonic Beam with critical results.

    The aerial view of the feat, as seen here, is provided directly from the PoV of the helicopter itself, so the only information we really need is the 'average' altitude that the craft flies at.

    The helicopter has a designation of JGC-21 along its side, but more importantly a JA 9521 registry on its caudal fin: while technically incorrect, typing a Google search for the latter figure results in the identification of the film helicopter as a Boeing-Vertol 234.

    The Boeing-Vertol 234 (more commonly known as the CH-47 Chinook), per Boeing's official specs, has a service ceiling (max flight altitude where a given rate of climb is attainable [no stalling, basically]) of 6096 metres; given the helicopter's usage for inspection of Mt. Fuji's summit, I figure it is a reasonable height to employ here.

    The beam takes 8 frames from appearance to reaching past the PoV (the first two blasts actually miss the helicopter, before the third shot makes a clean bisection).

    This film was shot at 24 FPS.

    8/24 = 0.33 seconds

    6096/0.33 = 18,472 m/s or Mach 54.29

    Incredibly fast; much more than I was actually expecting out of this feat, to be quite honest.

    Feat #2

    Later on in the film, after an initial scruffle with Gamera, Gyaos goes out for a night on the town: the city of Nagoya, to be precise. A bullet train filled with passengers is unfortunate enough to be passing by at the time: Gyaos demonstrates its at-range death beam once again.

    (Gyaos wingspan was originally measured by me [as seen in the spoiler] at 100 metres, per wikispace info: however, the billed height and weight stats in the profile are clearly contradictory to the data provided in the film. I located another Gyaos profile with much more faithful statistics to the primary canon, and thus the new wingspan basis will be 172 metres.)

    162 pixels = 172 metres

    This time, I'll be using the angsize formula to determine the result.

    The answer should be 34.978590297226 degrees.

    Angsize calculator

    Distance between the PoV and Gyaos is 272.93 metres.

    Feat duration is 4 frames.
    4/24 = 0.17 seconds
    272.93/0.17 = 1605.47 m/s or Mach 4.72

    Massively below Feat #1's result, but that was expected well in advance; still on the cusp of surpassing the hypersonic barrier in terms of raw velocity.

    Feat #3

    Again, similar premise to the above: Gyaos sniping a target from an appreciable distance with sound beams. This time, it's bringing the pain to the wrist of our favourite Hell-beckoning giant turtle.

    (Source for Showa Gamera's height)

    Feat duration is 14 frames.
    14/24 = 0.58 seconds
    472.50/0.58 = 814.66 m/s or Mach 2.39

    The slowest of the three calculated Sonic Beam feats, but not appreciably below that of Feat #2.


    There are one or two more calculable displays of Gyaos' primary weapon, but I figured at this stage, especially when devoid of any variety to the calcs in the entry (though there are sufficient technical specs to obtain a potential energy output for the acoustic ray...), I've collected more than adequate information to give the audience an understanding of the beam velocity being employed.

    Showa Gamera demonstrates sharp reaction rates and physical reflexes, being able to successfully evade a Gyaos Sonic Beam within only a few frames of time-lapse. It's clearly a step slower overall, but I'd wager you could easily extrapolate a minimum of supersonic-tier combat speed for Gamera (and by proxy, Gyaos in melee) out of this dodge.

    In regards to the wildly greater result gleamed in Feat #1 compared to Feats #2 and #3 (and truthfully, any other sonic ray feats in the entire film), and the likelihood of outlier status being conferred onto it subsequently, it is a complicated matter for me to settle decisively: where we evaluating these solely in regards to this individual movie's showings and events, then I would absolutely and without consideration relegate Feat #1 to an "out-of-bounds" designation.

    However, I also am fully aware of treating this in the wider context as but a single chapter in the Gamera/Daiei Studios compendium: while Mach 50+ may seem absurdly fast compared to the established precedent of the last two Gamera movies, a later entry (Gamera vs Guiron) will clearly assert that even massively hypersonic speeds are nothing out of the ordinary for the chelonian daikaiju, even whilst inside a planet's atmosphere. I am currently undecided on whether to relinquish my foothold on Feat #1 as a simple "ceiling" on the legitimate spectrum of beam velocity.


    Gamera vs Gyaos (1967)
    Speed (Gyaos, Sonic Beam): Mach 2.39 [low-end] - Mach 4.72 [mid-end]