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  1. The army tries to nuke the Martians, which fails.

    Spoiler:


    Also of importance is a line about the bomb;
    This would have included Ivy Mike of 1952, which had a yield of 10.4 megatons.

    E = 10.4 X 10
    = 104 megatons

    Strong bomb and strong shields.

    Final Results
    Humanity nukes the Martians = 104 megatons
  2. The Martians Heat Ray shakes the ground enough to break windows. It does this again later.
    We can determine a minimum distance from the first one.
    200 yards is equal to 182.88m. Breaking windows matches a scale VI on the mercalli scale, which translates to 5 on the richter scale.

    Playing around with the impact calculator until I got the right results, we get 1.63 x 10^16 joules for 183.00km. That's a lot more than the actual range, so we have to divide it to get our results proper.

    183000/182.88 = 1000.65617

    E = 1.63 x 10^16/1000.65617
    = 1.62893114e13 joules

    Then you divide it by 10000.

    E = 1.62893114e13/10000
    = 1628931140 joules
    = 0.3893238862333 tons of TNT

    Final Results
    The Martians Heat Ray = 0.389 tons of TNT
  3. Another impressive feat from the early MCU.
    When looking this up, I discovered this is based on a deleted scene from the 2008 Hulk, where Bruce does try to kill himself, but turns into Hulk and destroys an ice shelf (no speed feat though, unfortunately).

    2:13

    We can briefly see Bruce Banner in scale to the ice shelf at around 1:36. Bruce Banner in the 2008 Hulk was played by Edward Norton, who is 1.83m tall.

    32 pixels = 1.83m
    1 pixel = 1.83m/32 = 0.0571875m
    0.0571875m X 47 = 2.6878125m

    13 pixels = 2.6878125m
    1 pixel = 2.6878125m/13 = 0.206754808m
    0.206754808m X 223 = 46.1063222m

    491 pixels = 46.1063222m
    1 pixel = 46.1063222m/491 = 0.0939028965m
    0.0939028965m X 24 = 2.25366952m
    0.0939028965m X 1280 = 120.195708m

    0.0939028965m X 53 = 4.97685351m
    = 2*atan(491/(722/tan(70/2)))
    = 0.623431337 rad
    = 35.7199844263867305 degrees

    Using the angscaler, we can determine that the cliff is 71.545m away. Volumes of both the cliff and the shelf below as rectangles.

    V = lhw
    = 120.195708 X 46.1063222 X 4.97685351
    = 27580.6374m^3

    V = 120.195708 X 2.25366952 X 71.545
    = 19380.21m^3

    V = 27580.6374 X 19380.21
    = 534518545m^3

    Fragmentation of ice is 527100 joules/m^3.

    E = 534518545 X 527100
    = 2.81744725e14 joules
    = 67.3386054015 kilotons

    Final Results
    Hulk shatters iceshelf = 67.339 kilotons

  4. 1:26

    Visions beam reaches Falcon in a very short timeframe over a considerable distance, which Falcon dodges. The fight took place in Flughafen Leipzig-Halle, which we can get a map of for scaling.

    67 pixels = 100m
    1 pixel = 100m/67 = 1.49253731m
    1.49253731m X 164 = 244.776119m
    Now for the timeframe and the distance travelled.
    Spoiler:



    1.73 seconds.
    = 2*atan(98/(337/tan(70/2)))
    = 0.27384746 rad
    = 15.690303688416552 degrees

    Enter that through the angscaler and we have a distance of 888.25m away.

    T = 888.25m/1.73s
    = 513.439306/340.29
    = Mach 1.50882866

    Final Results
    Visions beam = Mach 1.509
  5. Continuing on with Amulet calcs.
    Spoiler:
    1. Emily, Trellis & Vigo pool their power
    Spoiler:




    Emily, Trellis & Vigo pool their energy together to create a shield to protect them from a fall, and said shield creates a huge explosion. Once again going with the average height of a 12 year old girl for Emily, that being 149.8cm (1.498m).

    45 pixels = 1.498m
    1 pixel = 1.498m/45 = 0.0332888889m
    0.0332888889m X 236 = 7.85617778m

    42 pixels = 7.85617778m
    1 pixel = 7.85617778m/42 = 0.187051852m
    0.187051852m X 626 = 117.094459m
    117.094459m/2 = 58.5472295m
    0.187051852m X 18 = 3.36693334m
    0.187051852m X 39 = 7.29502223m

    Volume as a cylinder

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 58.5472295^2 X 3.36693334
    = 36257.4359m^3

    Violent fragmentation of rock is 69000000 joules per m^3.

    E = 36257.4359 X 69000000
    = 2501763077100 joules
    = 597.9357258843212 tons of TNT

    As they pooled their energy, let's also get the strength for each of them.

    E = 2501763077100/3
    = 833921025700 joules
    = 199.311908628107 tons of TNT

    2. Recon ships environmental manipulation

    The Shadows recon ship can alter the molecular structure of its environment to create a habitable atmosphere for its hosts. Here it turns water to air.

    104 pixels = 1.498m
    1 pixel = 1.498m/104 = 0.0144038462m
    0.0144038462m X 408 = 5.87676925m
    0.0144038462m X 753 = 10.8460962m
    10.8460962m/2 = 5.4230481m

    Volume once more as a cylinder.

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 5.4230481^2 X 5.87676925
    = 542.969487m^3

    Atomization of water is 51384160000 joules per m^3.

    E = 542.969487 X 51384160000
    = 2.7900031e13 joules
    = 6.6682674474187379 kilotons of TNT


    Final Results
    Emily, Trellis & Vigo pool their energy = 597.935 tons of TNT
    Emily, Trellis & Vigo's individual power = 199.312 tons of TNT
    Recon ship alters the environment = 6.668 kilotons
  6. May as well have another series to go through and calc, so...let's go with Amulet.
    Spoiler:
    1. Emily lifts seal to Demon Head Mountain
    Spoiler:



    The mass of the seal is given to us, and the context.

    The seal is compossed of 20 tons of explosives, and picking them up with an amulet without care could lead to them exploding, destroying the stonekeeper and the entrance. That already gives us a nice figure to go with. Now for the energy to lift it. Emily is 12 at the start of the series.
    Spoiler:


    Emily is 12 at the start of the series IIRC, and the average height of a 12 year old girl is 149.8cm (1.498m).

    85 pixels = 1.498m
    1 pixel = 1.498m/85 = 0.0176235294m
    0.0176235294m X 11 = 0.193858823m
    0.0176235294m X 449 = 7.9129647m
    7.9129647m/2 = 3.95648235m

    E = 3.95648235 X 9.807 X 20000
    = 776024.448 joules

    2. Trellis gets blasted through a wall

    Trellis gets blasted through a wall, without any shields protecting him from what I can see. Before the statue, let's also get the wall of rock behind it.

    59 pixels = 1.498m
    1 pixel = 1.498m/59 = 0.0253898305m
    0.0253898305m X 20 = 0.50779661m

    62 pixels = 1.498m
    1 pixel = 1.498m/62 = 0.0241612903m
    0.0241612903m X 12 = 0.289935484m

    Now onto the statue.

    32 pixels = 0.289935484m
    1 pixel = 0.289935484m/32 = 0.00906048388m
    0.00906048388m X 342 = 3.09868549m
    3.09868549m/2 = 1.54934274m
    0.00906048388m X 156 = 1.41343549m
    0.00906048388m X 124 = 1.1235m
    1.1235m/2 = 0.56175m
    0.00906048388m X 168 = 1.52216129m
    0.00906048388m X 297 = 2.69096371m
    2.69096371m/2 = 1.34548186m

    The head as a cylinder, the shoulders and chest as a semi-elipsoid, and the wall behind as an elipsoidal cylinder.

    V = 4/3πabc
    = 4/3 X π X 1.54934274 X 1.52216129 X 1.52216129
    = 15.0368704/2
    = 7.5184352m^3

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 0.56175^2 X 1.41343549
    = 1.40123839m^3

    A = πrr
    = π X 1.54934274 X 1.34548186
    = 6.54900348m^2

    V = Ah
    = 6.54900348 X 0.50779661
    = 3.32556177m^3

    V = 7.5184352 + 6.54900348 + 3.32556177
    = 17.3930004m^3

    Violent fragmentation of rock is 69000000 joules per m^3.

    E = 17.3930004 X 69000000
    = 1.20011703e9 joules
    = 0.2868348542065 tons of TNT


    Final Results
    Demon Head Mountain seal = 20 tons of TNT
    Emily moves seal = 776024.448 joules
    Gabilan smashes Trellis through a statue = 0.287 tons of TNT

  7. 2:56

    Thor's hammer flies up into space in a second. Let's get the distance and the timeframe first.
    Spoiler:


    Timeframe is 0.96s.


    R = (h/2) + c^2/(8h)
    = (14/2) + 585^2/(8 X 14)
    = 3062.58036 X 2
    = 6125.16072

    Diameter of the Earth is 12756.2km.
    = 2*atan(6125.16072/(249/tan(70/2)))
    = 2.97041737 rad
    = 170.19237869377204 degrees

    Enter that through the angscaler and we get a distance of 547.22km from the Earth.

    T = 547.22km/0.96s
    = 570020.833/340.29
    = Mach 1675.1031

    Now for the kinetic energy. There's a bunch of dimensions for Mljolnir on the internet already thankfully, so that saves us some time.

    After sitting and thinking on it for some time, we'll get the handle as a cylinder and the head as a rectangle.

    208 pixels = 22cm
    1 pixel = 22cm/208 = 0.105769231cm
    0.105769231cm X 26 = 2.75000001cm
    2.75000001cm/2 = 1.37500cm

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 1.37500^2 X 29.5
    = 175.217422cm^3

    V = lhw
    = 22 X 13.5 X 13.5
    = 4009.5cm^3

    V = 175.217422 + 4009.5
    = 4184.71742cm^3 (0.00418471742m^3)

    First off, a low end of iron, which weighs 7300kg per m^3.

    M = 0.00418471742 X 7300
    = 30.5484372kg

    KE = (0.5) X 30.5484372 X 570020.833^2
    = 4.96295639e12 joules
    = 1.18617504541 kilotons

    Now for the high end. In Avengers: Infinity War, it's noted that Mjolnir was made in the heart of a neutron star...
    ...So we'll go with the mass of a neutron star. A neutron star weighs 2.4 × 10^17kg per m^3.

    M = 0.00418471742 X 2.4e17
    = 1.00433218e15kg

    KE = (0.5) X 1.00433218e15 X 570020.833^2
    = 1.63165689e26 joules
    = 38.9975356119 petatons

    Final Results
    Thors hammer flies into space = Mach 1675.103
    Thors hammer flies into space (energy - low end) = 1.186 kilotons
    Thors hammer flies into space (energy - high end) = 38.998 petatons
  8. A gems tale by Lapis Lazuli.
    http://steven-universe.wikia.com/wiki/Can't_Go_Back/Transcript
    Lapis flies from the Earth to the edge of the Milky Way and back again in a relatively short timeframe. Not sure what the exact timeframe is yet, but it sure didn't take dozens of millennia. Lapis flew off in Raising the Barn, which aired on the 22nd of Decembe, 2017, and was back at the Moon in Can't Go Back which aired on the 7th of May, 2018. We'll go for how long it takes her to fly to the edge of the galaxy.

    T = 31 - 22
    = 9 + 31 + 28 + 31 + 30 + 7
    = 136/2
    = 68 X 24 X 60 X 69
    = 6756480 seconds

    The shortest distance to the edge of the Milky Way is 20,000 lightyears (or 1.89215e+20m).

    T = 1.89215e+20m/6756480s
    = 2.80049671e13/299792458
    = 93414.5151 C

    Final Results
    Lapis flies to the edge of the Milky Way = 93414.515 C


    And to top it up, she did this while dragging a barn and the rock beneath it across space at these speeds.

  9. Gauss Weapons can fire pojectiles at over 5000m a second. Seems easy enough.

    T = 5000m1/s
    = 5000/340.29
    = Mach 14.6933498

    Final Results
    Gauss weapons = >Mach 14.693
  10. Calc request for @NightmareCinema .

    0:16

    Harry takes off a lasso before the electricity can reach him. Harry is played by Colin Firth, who is 1.87m tall.

    878 pixels = 1.87m
    1 pixel = 1.87m/878 = 0.00212984055m
    0.00212984055m X 126 = 0.268359909m

    = 2*atan(71/(249/tan(70/2)))
    = 0.268581329 rad
    = 15.3885766077527943 degrees

    Put that through the angscaler and we get 0.99316m away. A quick search reveals that the speed of electricity is between 50% to 99% of light.

    (Low end)

    T = 299792458 X 50/100
    = 149896229m/s

    T = 0.99316m/149896229m X 1s
    = 6.62565034 nanoseconds

    That's the amount of time it would take the electricity to pass along the wire. How quickly can Harry lift the rope over his head?

    T = 0.268359909m/6.62565034ns
    = 40503180.1/299792458 X 100
    = 13.5104066% C

    Let's also find the energy for that. Colin Firth weighs 76kg, and the average mass of upper arms in males is 3.25%.

    M = 3.25/100 X 76
    = 2.47kg

    Enter those values through the relativistic kinetic energy calculator and have you 8.576E+15 joules, or 2.04971319312 megatons.

    (High end)
    T = 299792458 X 99/100
    = 296794533m/s

    T = 0.99316m/296794533 X 1s
    = 3.34628805 nanoseconds

    T = 0.268359909m/3.34628805ns
    = 80196296.6/299792458 X 100
    = 26.7506051% C

    And that's 8.396E+15 joules, or 2.001 megatons.

    Final Results
    Harry removes noose (speed - low end) = 13.510% C
    Harry removes noose (energy - low end) = 490.918 kilotons
    Harry removes noose (speed - high end) = 26.751% C
    Harry removes noose (energy - high end) = 2.001 megatons


  11. Spoiler:



    The Volcanic Ray spell melts the ground and causes lava to burst up. Continental crust ranges from 30km to 50km, which averages out at 40km (40,000m). First off, let's find the speed.

    Spoiler:


    2.29 seconds. We'll split that in half for the time for the heat ray to reach below the crust and for the lava to burst up.

    T = 2.29s/2
    = 40,000m/1.14500s
    = 34934.4978/340.29
    = Mach 102.660959

    Amanda is 167cm tall, or 1.67m.

    139 pixels = 1.67m
    1 pixel = 1.67m/139 = 0.0120143885m
    0.0120143885m X 6 = 0.072086331m

    0.0120143885m X 505 = 6.06726619m
    6.06726619m/2 = 3.03363309m
    3.03363309m - 0.072086331m = 2.96154676m

    Volume as a cylinder.

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 3.03363309^2 X 40,000
    = 1156474.26m^3

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 2.96154676^2 X 40,000
    = 1102166.11m^3

    V = 1156474.26 - 1102166.11
    = 54308.15m^3

    There are various densities of magma, those being basalt, andesite and rhyolite. We'll go with the average rhyolite, as that weighs the least. Rhyolite magma weighs between 2180 and 2250kg per m^3, which averages out at 2215kg per m^3.

    M = 54308.15 X 2215
    = 120292552kg

    At last for our energy.

    KE = (0.5) X 120292552 X 34934.4978^2
    = 7.34036662e16 joules

    Let's also get the energy for the heat ray to melt the rock. Melting rock takes 4350000000 joules per m^3.

    E = 54308.15 X 4350000000
    = 2.36240452e14

    E = 7.34036662e16 + 2.36240452e14
    = 7.36399067e16 joules
    = 17.6003601099 megatons

    Final Results
    Volcanic Ray (speed) = Mach 102.661
    Volcanic Ray (energy) = 17.600 megatons


    Which all in all is consistent with Akko's Shooting Star feat and Vajorios's sneeze.
  12. Spoiler:









    The time loop that Akko and her friends get caught in causes multiple stars to glow brighter than usual. This is going to take a bit...
    Spoiler:
    Finding the luminousity level for these stars and their distance shouldn't be too hard; we'll just look them up. The conversion factor from lux to apparent magnitude is -2.5 log I - 14.2. I'll be using the below formula, step by step, adding everything up at the end.


    Pollux is 34 lightyears (321664836067747200m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 1.14.

    M = -26.73 - 2.5log ((L/3.846*10^26)(146000000000/d)^2)
    (146000000000/(321664836067747200))^2) = 2.06014855e-13
    1.14 - -26.73 = 2.06014855e-13/((L/3.846*10^26)
    27.87 = -2.5Log(2.06014855e-13/((L/3.846*10^26))
    27.87/-2.5 = (2.06014855e-13/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.14800) = (2.06014855e-13/((L/3.846*10^26))
    7.11213514e-12 = (2.06014855e-13/((L/3.846*10^26))
    7.11213514e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.06014855e-13
    2.74812902e16/2.06014855e-13 = 1.33394702e29 joules

    Gienah is 154 lightyears (1.457e+18m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 2.585.

    (146000000000/(1.457e+18))^2) = 1.00412229e-14
    2.585 - -26.73 = 1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    29.31500 = -2.5Log(1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    29.31500/-2.5 = (1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.72600) = (1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.87931682e-12 = (1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.87931682e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.00412229e-14
    7.26168019e15/2.06014855e-13 = 3.52483329e28 joules

    Ankaa is 85 lightyears (8.042e+17m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 2.377.

    (146000000000/(8.042e+17))^2) = 3.29592692e-14
    2.377 - -26.73 = 3.29592692e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    29.10700 = -2.5Log(3.29592692e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    29.10700/-2.5 = (3.29592692e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.6428) = (3.29592692e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.27614539e-12 = (1.00412229e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.27614539e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.00412229e-14
    8.79502579e15/2.06014855e-13 = 4.26912214e28 joules

    Shaula is 570 lightyears (5.393e+18m) away and has an apparent magnitde of 1.62.

    (146000000000/(5.393e+18))^2) = 7.32900252e-16
    1.62 - -26.73 = 7.32900252e-16/((L/3.846*10^26)
    28.35 = -2.5Log(7.32900252e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    28.35/-2.5 = (7.32900252e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.34) = (7.32900252e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    4.5708819e-12 = (7.32900252e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    4.5708819e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 7.32900252e-16
    1.76618877e16/7.32900252e-16 = 2.40986241e31 joules

    Algol is 92.8 lightyears (8.7796e+17m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 2.12.

    (146000000000/(8.7796e+17))^2) = 2.76538913e-14
    2.12 - -26.73 = 2.76538913e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    28.85 = -2.5Log(2.76538913e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    28.85/-2.5 = (2.76538913e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.54) = (2.76538913e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.8840315e-12 = (2.76538913e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.8840315e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.76538913e-14
    1.11438977e16/2.76538913e-14 = 4.02977562e29 joules

    Mimosa is 280 lightyears (2.649e+18m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 1.25.

    (146000000000/(2.649e+18))^2) = 3.03767841e-15
    1.25 - -26.73 = 3.03767841e-15/((L/3.846*10^26)
    27.98 = -2.5Log(3.03767841e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    27.98/-2.5 = (3.03767841e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-11.19200) = (3.03767841e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    6.42687717e-12 = (3.03767841e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    6.42687717e-12 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.06014855e-13
    2.48334534e16/3.03767841e-15 = 8.17514234e30 joules

    Canopus is 310 lightyears (2.933e+18m) away and has an apparent magnitude of −0.74.

    (146000000000/(2.933e+18))^2) = 2.4778875e-15
    −0.74 - -26.73 = 2.4778875e-15/((L/3.846*10^26)
    25.99 = -2.5Log(2.4778875e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    25.99/-2.5 = (2.4778875e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-10.39600) = (2.4778875e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    4.01790811e-11 = (2.4778875e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    4.01790811e-11 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.4778875e-15
    1.55251969e17/2.4778875e-15 = 6.26549708e31 joules

    That's not all! Then there are the seven major stars of the Horologium constellation; Alpha Horologii, R Horologii, Beta Horologii, Mu Horologii, Zeta Horologii, Eta Horologii and Iota. Alpha Horologii is 117 lightyears (1.107e+18m) from the Sun and has an apparent magnitude of 3.853.

    (146000000000/(1.107e+18))^2) = 1.73944407e-14
    3.853 - -26.73 = 1.73944407e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    30.58300 = -2.5Log(1.73944407e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    30.58300/-2.5 = (1.73944407e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.2332) = (1.73944407e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    5.8452084e-13 = (1.73944407e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    5.8452084e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.73944407e-14
    2.25858853e15/1.73944407e-14 = 1.29845424e29 joules

    R Horologii is 1000 lightyears (9.461e+18m) away and has an apparent magnitude of 7.22.

    (146000000000/(9.461e+18))^2) = 2.38139604e-16
    7.22 - -26.73 = 2.38139604e-16/((L/3.846*10^26)
    33.95 = -2.5Log(2.38139604e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    33.95/-2.5 = (2.38139604e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-13.58) = (2.38139604e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.63026799e-14 = (2.38139604e-16/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.63026799e-14 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.38139604e-16
    1.01633555e14/2.38139604e-16 = 4.26781406e29 joules

    Beta Horologii is 295 lightyears (2.791e+18m) away from the Earth and has an apparent magnitude of 4.979.

    (146000000000/(2.791e+18))^2) = 2.73644068e-15
    4.979 - -26.73 = 2.73644068e-15/((L/3.846*10^26)
    31.70900 = -2.5Log(2.73644068e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    31.70900/-2.5 = (2.73644068e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.6836) = (2.73644068e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.0720489e-13 = (2.73644068e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    2.0720489e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 2.73644068e-15
    8.00639695e14/2.73644068e-15 = 2.92584342e29 joules

    Mu Horologii is 141.6 lightyears (1.33964e+18m) from the Sun and has an apparent magnitude of 5.11.

    (146000000000/(1.33964e+18))^2) = 1.1877622e-14
    5.11 - -26.73 = 1.1877622e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    31.84 = -2.5Log(1.1877622e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    31.84/-2.5 = (1.1877622e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.73600) = (1.1877622e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.83653834e-13 = (1.1877622e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.83653834e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.1877622e-14
    8.00639695e14/1.1877622e-14 = 6.74074065e28 joules

    Zeta Horologii is 160 lightyears (1.514e+18m) away from the Sun and has an apparent magnitude of 5.20.

    (146000000000/(1.514e+18))^2) = 1.1877622e-14
    5.20 - -26.73 = 9.29937929e-15/((L/3.846*10^26)
    31.93 = -2.5Log(9.29937929e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    31.93/-2.5 = (9.29937929e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.77200) = (9.29937929e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.69044093e-13 = (9.29937929e-15/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.69044093e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 9.29937929e-15
    6.53186375e14/9.29937929e-15 = 7.02397821e28 joules

    Eta Horologii is 149 lightyears (1.41e+18m) away from the Earth and has an apparent magnitude of 5.31.

    (146000000000/(1.41e+18))^2) = 1.07217947e-14
    5.31 - -26.73 = 1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    32.04 = -2.5Log(1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    32.04/-2.5 = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.81600) = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.52756606e-13 = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.52756606e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.07217947e-14
    5.90251526e14/1.07217947e-14 = 5.50515602e28 joules

    Iota Horologii is 56 lightyears (5.298e+17) away and has an apparent magnitude of 5.40.

    (146000000000/(5.298e+17))^2) = 1.07217947e-14
    5.40 - -26.73 = 1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26)
    32.13 = -2.5Log(1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    32.13/-2.5 = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    10^(-12.85200) = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.40604752e-13 = (1.07217947e-14/((L/3.846*10^26))
    1.40604752e-13 X (3.864*10e26) = 1.07217947e-14
    5.43296762e14/1.07217947e-14 = 5.06721848e28 joules

    Finally, to add all of them together!

    E = 1.33394702e29 + 3.52483329e28 + 4.26912214e28 + 2.40986241e31 + 4.02977562e29 + 8.17514234e30 + 6.26549708e31 + 1.29845424e29 + 4.26781406e29 + 2.92584342e29 + 6.74074065e28 + 7.02397821e28 + 5.50515602e28 + 5.06721848e28
    = 9.65299074e31 joules
    = 23.071201577437857821 zettatons


    Final results
    Timeloop causes stars to increase in luminousity (per second) = 23.071 zettatons


    The Time Demon broke this time loop, and the party defeated it (although the first time around it resurrected and the second time they needed the Talisman of Time) so this scales to everyone in base.
  13. So it turns out it's Legendary Defender, not Legacy Defender. How did I miss this? :defeatAnyway, on with the calcs.
    Spoiler:
    1. The Yalex destroys a moon
    Spoiler:


    Spoiler:


    The Yalex destroys a moon by awakening. Low end of with Saturns moon Mimas, which has a diameter of 396km, and a high end of Luna, which has a diameter of 3476.2km.

    (Low end)
    396km/2 = 198km (198000m)
    890 pixels = 396km (396000m)
    1 pixel = 396000m/890 = 444.94382m
    444.94382m X 67 = 29811.2359m

    Volume as a sphere.

    V = 4/3πr^3
    = 4/3 X π X 198000^3
    = 3.25150316e16m^3

    R = 198000m - 29811.2359m
    = 168188.764m

    V = 4/3πr^3
    = 4/3 X π X 168188.764^3
    = 1.99287265e16m^3

    V = 3.25150316e16 - 1.99287265e16
    = 1.25863051e16m^3

    Violent fragmentation of rock is 69000000 joules. It's a hemisphere, so we'll also half it.

    E = 1.25863051e16 X 69000000
    = 8.68455052e23/2
    = 4.34227526e23 joules
    = 103.782869503 teratons

    (High end)
    3476.2km/2 = 1738.1km (1738100m)
    890 pixels = 3476.2km (3476200m)
    1 pixel = 3476200m/890 = 3905.8427m
    3905.8427m X 67 = 261691.461m

    V = 4/3πr^3
    = 4/3 X π X 1738100^3
    = 2.19944389e19m^3

    V = 1738100 - 261691.461
    = 1476408.54m

    V = 4/3πr^3
    = 4/3 X π X 1476408.54^3
    = 1.348057e19m^3

    V = 2.19944389e19 - 1.348057e19
    = 8.5138689e18m^3

    E = 8.5138689e18 X 69000000
    = 5.87456954e26/2
    = 2.93728477e26 joules
    = 70.20279087 petatons

    Next up, let's find the surface area each member of Voltron tanked on the planets surface. Pidge is the smallest there, so anyone else would have tanked even more. Pidge is 15, and the average mass of a 15 year old girl is is 52.1kg and their height is 159.7cm (1.597m). Enter those values into this calculator here and we have a surface area of 1.53m^2. Well find our energy with inverse square law. We need the surface area of the moon (halved, because only half of it was destroyed as far as we saw).

    (Low end)
    A = 4πr^2
    = 4 X π X 198000^2
    = 4.92651994e11/2
    = 246325997000m^2

    1.597/246325997000
    = 6.48327834e-12 X 4.34227526e23
    = 2.81521791e12 joules
    = 672.853228967 tons of TNT

    (High end)
    A = 4πr^2
    = 4 X π X 1738100^2
    = 3.79629002e13/2
    = 1.89814501e13m^2

    1.597/1.89814501e13
    = 8.41347732e-14 X 2.93728477e26
    = 2.47127788e13 joules
    = 5.9064958891 kilotons

    2. Zarkon destroys Altea
    Spoiler:






    Zarkon destroys Altea, quite impressively too. Assuming Altea is Earth-sized, which means a mass of 5.97219e24kg and a diameter of 12756.2km.

    83 pixels = 12756.2km
    1 pixel = 12756.2km/83 = 153.689157km

    1106 X 153.689157km = 169980.208km

    Now for the timeframe.
    Spoiler:


    2 seconds

    T = 169980.208km/2s
    = 84990104m/s

    KE = (0.5) X 5.97219e24 X 84990104^2
    = 2.15695131e40 joules
    = 5.1552353566 tenatons


    Final Results
    Yalex destroys a moon (low end) = 103.783 teratons
    Yalex destroys a moon (high end) = 70.203 petatons
    Pidge survives moons destruction (low end) = 672.853 tons of TNT
    Pidge survives moons destruction (high end) = 5.906 kilotons
    Zarkon destroys Altea = 5.155 tenatons
  14. Calc request for @Unlosing Ranger .

    5:46
    Spoiler:


    Musashi's sacrifice creates a huge explosion, which turns everything around to dust. Scaling from the sphere when it reaches cloud height and pushes the clouds back. Going with stratocumulus clouds, which float around 2000m up.

    174 pixels = 2000m
    2000m/174 = 11.4942529m
    11.4942529m X 363 = 4172.4138m

    Volume as a sphere.

    V = 4/3πr^3
    = 4/3 X π X 4172.4138^3
    = 3.04264111e11m^3

    It turns everything to dust, so a low end of pulverization, high end of vaporization. Pulverization of rock is 200000000 joules/m^3 and vaporization is 27050000000 joules/m/3.

    (Low end)
    E = 3.04264111e11 X 200000000
    = 6.08528222e19 joules
    = 14.544173566 gigatons

    (High end)
    E = 3.04264111e11 X 27050000000
    = 8.2303442e21 joules
    = 1.96709947419 teratons

    Final Results
    Musashi's Sacrifice (low end) = 14.544 gigatons
    Musashi's Sacrifice (high end) = 1.967 teratons

    Not sure if I did that quite right, but there you go.
  15. But still, they come.
    The Martians cylinders fly towards the Earth at several thousand miles a minute, and backs this up by confirming that the missiles are traversing many miles a second. It says miles (as in plural), so that should be at least 2000 miles, or 3218.688km.

    T = 3218.688km/60s
    = 53644.8/340.29
    = Mach 157.644362

    Let's also get KE. The thickness and diameter is given to us.
    30 yards (27.43200m) across and 2 feet (60.96cm, or 0.6096m) thick. Volume, obviously, as a cylinder. Assuming at least the same height as diameter (which would make sense).

    R = 27.43200m/2
    = 13.71600m

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 13.71600^2 X 27.43200
    = 16212.9595m^3

    R = 13.71600m - 0.6096m
    = 13.1064m

    V = πr^2h
    = π X 13.1064^2 X 27.43200
    = 14803.8331m^3

    V = 16212.9595 - 14803.8331
    = 1409.1264m^3

    The tripods are described as being made as some kind of aluminium...
    ...So I'll go with the same for the cylinders too. Aluminium weighs 2600kg/m^3.

    M = 1409.1264 X 2600
    = 3663728.64kg

    KE = (0.5) X 3663728.64 X 53644.8^2
    = 5.27167423e15 joules
    = 1.25996038002 megatons

    Final Results
    The Martian Cylinders traverse space = Mach 157.644
    Martian's launch cylinders = 1.26 megatons
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